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Chapter 8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC37H3
Professor
Roucuo
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8Topic 8ATheories of Personality and Projective Techniques Fundamental distinction between ability tests and personality tests ability tests include a plethora of instruments for measuring intelligence achievement and aptitude personality tests seek to measure one or more of the following personality traits dynamic motivation symptoms of distress personal strengths and attitudinal characteristicsPERSONALITY AN OVERVIEW Two fundamental features of the personality construct first each person is consistent to some extent and each person is distinctive to some extent The notion of personality is used to explain behavioral differences between persons and to understand the behavioral consistency within each individual In addition to understanding personality psychologists also seek to measure it PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Psychoanalysis was the original creation of Sigmund FreudOrigins of Psychoanalytic Theory Freud was a neurologist and focused in the treatment of hysteria an emotional disorder characterized by histrionic behavior and physical symptoms of psychic origins such as paralysis blindness and loss of sensationhe believed that the root cause of hysteria was buried in memories of traumatic experiences and if these memories could be brought forth a release of emotion called abreaction would take place and the hysterical symptoms would disappear Freud developed a general theory of psychological functioning within the concept of the unconcscious as its foundation Freud believed that our most significant personal motivations are largely beyond conscious awareness and that dreams portray our unconscious motives in a disguised formFreuds concept of the unconscious generated a whole family of projective techniques including inkblot tests word association approaches sentence completion techniques and storytelling techniquesThe Structure of the Mind Freud divided our mind into three structures the id the ego and the superego The id is what Freud described as a chaos a cauldron of seething excitement It is entirely unconscious so we must infer its characteristics by analyzing dreams and symptoms such as anxiety The id has only one purpose to obtain immediate satisfaction for instinctual needs in accordance with the pleasure principleimpulsion toward immediate gratification without regard for values good or evil or morality The id is also incapable of logical and possesses no concept of time Soon after birth the id develops into the ego or conscious self The purpose is to mediate between the id and realitythe ego is part of the id and servant to it The ego is largely conscious and obeys the reality principleseeks realistic and safe ways of discharging the instinctual tensions that are constantly pushing forth from the idSuperego is the ethical component of personality that starts to emerge in the first five years of lifeit is our conscience and comprises the societal standards or right and wrong Superego is partly conscious but a large part of it is unconscious The function of the superego is to restrict the attempts of the id and ego to obtain gratificationmain weapon is guilt Another part of the superego is the ego idealwhich consists of our aims and aspirationsthe ego tries to fulfill its demands for perfection and if falls short could result in feeling of guilt The Role of Defense MechanismsThe ego has to mediate id superego and external reality Ego has tools to help carry out its work labeled defense mechanisms Three common characteristics exclusive purpose is to help ego reduce anxiety they operate unconsciously and they distort inner or outer reality Anxiety and defense mechanisms are complementary concepts in psychoanalytic theoryAssessment of Defense Mechanisms and Ego FunctionsVaillant developed 4 levels of defense mechanisms Psychotic immature neurotic and mature Pg 318 for detail Interrater reliability was respectableTYPE THEORIES OF PERSONALITYThe earliest personality theories attempted to sort individuals into discrete categories or typesType A CoronaryProne Behavior Pattern Friedman and Rosenman investigated the psychological variables that put individuals at higher risk of coronary heart disease Type A coronaryprone behavior pattern is an action emotion complex that can be observed in any person who is aggressively involved in a chronic incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and if required to do so against the opposing efforts of other things or personsAt the opposing extreme is Type B easy going noncompetitive relaxed lifestyle Speficific components of the full fledged Type A behavior pattern Insecurity of status hyperaggressiveness free floating hostility sense of time urgency Type A behavior can be diagnosed from a short interview or the more flagrant cases can be detected by paper and pencil tasksEarly studies indicated that persons who exhibited the Type A behavior pattern were at greatly increased risk of coronary disease and heart attackIn other studies researchers have only found a weak relationship or no relationship at all between Type A behavior and coronary heart diseasePHENOMENOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITYPhenomenological theories of personality emphasize the importance of immediate personal subjective experience as a determinant of behavior
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