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David Nussbaum

Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectiveChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence CHAPTER 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence Behind Closed Doors: LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Distinguish between the different types of family violence. 2. Explain the ecological model of family violence. 3. Outline how social learning theory has been used to explain intimate violence. 4. Describe the effectiveness of treatment programs for intimate violence. 5. Identify the short- and long-term consequences of child abuse. 6. Identify the victim and perpetrator risk factors for elder CHAPTER SUMMARY Family violence can be classified into the following types: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, financial abuse, and emotional abuse. The prevalence rates of family violence are difficult to estimate accurately since the abuse often occurs in private. In addition, researchers do not agree on what should be included in the definition of family violence. Researchers often study the prevalence and effects of specific types of abuse. The ecological model of family violence focuses on the relationship between multiple levels of influence in understanding family violence, including individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. Risk factors associated with each of these levels have been identified for intimate violence, child abuse, and elder abuse. The two prominent theories of intimate violence place emphasis on society versus the individual. Patriarchal theory focuses on long-standing cultural beliefs and values that support the male dominance of women. In contrast, social learning theory focuses on the observational learning of new behaviours, different types of instigators, and the regulators that increase or decrease the probability of intimate violence. Typologies of male batterers have been proposed, with most identifying three main types: family-only, generally violent/antisocial, and dysphoric/borderline. The two most common treatments for male batterers are the Duluth model, which focuses on power and control, and cognitive-behavioural treatments. Meta-analysis of male batterer treatment programs have found no differences in the effectiveness across treatment types and relatively small treatment effects. The most common form of child abuse is neglect, although many children experience multiple forms of abuse. Being abused or witnessing domestic violence results in a range of short-term and long-term emotional, psychological, and behavioural consequences, including an increased likelihood of the child abusing his or her own children. Clinicians and researchers have paid relatively little attention to elder maltreatment. With the increasing number of older people in Canada, there are concerns about the prevalence of the abuse of older people. The most common perpetrators of elder Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 156 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectiveChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence abuse are the victim’s spouse or adult children. Because elders visit physicians relatively frequently, primary care physicians are in a unique position to identify maltreatment and to intervene. However, some physicians are reluctant to report suspected elder maltreatment. Several screening instruments have been designed to help professionals detect potential abuse. LECTURE OUTLINE 1. Introduction:  Ideally, a family is a place where someone can feel loved, secure, and safe.  Within some families, there is abuse, fear, and a lack of emotional bonds that can lead to violence.  The occurrence and aftermath of this violence can have devastating short- and long-term effects.  In some cases, children who experience abuse become abusers themselves and the cycle passes from generation to generation.  it is not unusual that victims of abuse initially blame themselves.  Victims will often attempt to change their behaviour in order not to trigger an abusive episode, but the abuse usually continues and even escalates.  Violence: 1. is the most prevalent form of violence in society. 2. is distinct from other types of violence since the victims and perpetrators know each other and there is often an ongoing relationship prior to, during, and after the violent episode. 3. in contrast to other forms of violence, some forms of family violence are sanctioned (e.g., physical punishment of children) or considered normal (e.g., fighting among siblings) and therefore not considered criminal.  This chapter is divided into three parts - the first covers abuse within intimate relationships; the second, child abuse; and the third discusses elder abuse.  Major themes in each are the prevalence of the abuse, its causes, and interventions.  Estimates of the magnitude of family violence vary depending on the sample, type, and severity of violence and the method of data collection.  family violence is likely the most common form of criminal activity. 2. Violence within the Family: Background Issues:  Family violence is any violence occurring between members of a family.  For much of history, family violence had a quasi-legitimacy, due primarily to cultural and religious attitudes that effectively placed women and children in subservient roles within the family.  Only in the recent past have attitudes toward the issue changed. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 157 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectiveChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  The women’s liberation movement and the growth of feminism led women to question the long-standing acceptance of family violence.  Not until the 1980s did major changes take place in Canadian law dealing with family violence.  Defining family violence is controversial.  no consensus exists for a definition, although most current definitions of family violence include non-violent abuse (such as emotional or financial abuse).  Differential rates of abuse can be the result of differences in who is sampled and what is counted  When examining the frequency of violence, it is important to clarify the distinction between prevalence and incidence.  Prevalence refers to the total number of people who have experienced violence in a specified time period, whereas incidence is the number of new cases identified or reported at a given point in time, usually one year.  When reporting on the estimates of family violence, many factors will influence the prevalence and incidence figures.  Most researchers have focused on one specific type of family violence, but there is evidence of considerable overlap in the risk factors and causes of different forms.  Research is needed to integrate different theories, understand the impact of multiple forms of violence on the victims, and focus on prevention of all forms of violence. Types of Violence  Some forms of abuse are more common than others - neglect is the most common form of abuse in both children and the elderly.  Psychological abuse is often described by individuals as one of the most hurtful types of abuse.  Financial abuse is most often studied in the context of elder abuse but can also occur within intimate relationships. Ecological Model of Family Violence  The ecological model of family violence provides a useful way to conceptualize the interaction among factors related to violence in intimate relationships, child abuse, and elder abuse.  the model focuses on the relationship between multiple levels of influence in understanding family violence, including individual, relationship, community, and societal factors.  At the individual level, biological, and personal history characteristics of the abuser and victim need to be considered.  Such factors often include age, substance use, and history of abuse.  At the relationship level, a person’s closest social circle of peers, partners, and family members may contribute to an increased risk.  Important factors may include level of stress or exposure to violence.  The community level incorporates places such as schools and neighbourhoods that are associated with becoming a victim or perpetrator Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 158 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence of family violence, as well as factors such as poverty, social isolation, and community disorganization.  The societal level includes broad societal factors in which violence is supported or discouraged, including social norms, cultural beliefs, and police and government policies. 3. Intimate Partner Violence:  Intimate partner violence, (also called spousal violence,) occurs between intimate partners who are living together or separated.  Varying in type and severity, it includes physical (e.g., hitting, punching, stabbing, burning), sexual, financial (e.g., restricting access to personal funds, forcing complete financial responsibility, theft of pay-cheques), and emotional abuse (e.g., verbal attacks, degradation, threats to hurt pets or family members, isolation from family members, unwarranted accusations about infidelity).  Although both men and women experienced violence, women reported experiencing more severe forms of violence (i.e., being choked, sexually assaulted, or threatened by a partner using a knife or gun).  Violence against women was more likely to be reported to the police (36 percent) than was violence against men (17 percent )  Although abuse against women occurs at all socio-demographic levels, one recent study found much higher rates of abuse in women living in Ontario public housing compared to rates reported in the 2004 national survey.  19 percent of women reported have been physical assaulted in the past year, over eight times the average reported in the national survey.  The World Health Organization has studied the lifetime and past-year prevalence of physical and sexual violence in intimate relationships across 10 countries  Wide variations of prevalence rates were found.  Lifetime rates of physical violence ranged from 13 percent in Japan to 61 percent in Peru and sexual violence from 6 percent in Japan and Serbia to 59 percent in Ethiopia.  Physical and sexual violence were experienced more often by women in rural as compared to urban settings.  The International Dating Violence Study used the Conflict Tactics Scale–2 to examine the prevalence of dating violence in university students across 32 countries:  the partner, used a knife or gun on my partner) over the previous 12 months in selected countries.  Rates of being a victim of sexual coercion in selected countries were also reported.  Sexual coercion included both minor acts (e.g., made my partner have sex without a condom, insisted on sex when my partner did not want to) to more severe acts (e.g., used force to make my partner have oral or anal sex, used threats to make my partner have sex). Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 159 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectiveChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  Although there were substantial variations across nations, even in the country with the lowest rate, Israel, 14 percent of students had been physically assaulted by a dating partner within the previous 12 months.  In comparison to other countries, Canadian dating violence rates were in the lower half of the nations surveyed;  about one in five Canadian university students reported have experienced physical assault by their dating partners in the previous 12 months.  the United States and Canada had relatively high rates of sexual coercion as compared to other countries.  Recently, Statistics Canada provided information on the number of police- reported spousal violence incidents across Canada.  A total of 38 000 incidents were reported in 2006 (15 percent of all violence reported to police).  The data likely reflect an underestimate of the amount of violent offences, since most victims do not call the police.  police data only include forms of spousal abuse that are chargeable under the Canadian Criminal Code (most forms of psychological and financial abuse are excluded).  As a proportion to other violent incidents, spousal violence is most common in Nunavut, PEI, Quebec, and Alberta, with the lowest rates in B.C., New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.  These differences may be due to the differing number of risk factors across the provinces and territories: social isolation, younger couples, higher levels of unemployment, higher rates of alcohol consumption, more common-law marriages, and the proportion of Aboriginals  Females are the most likely victims of police-reported spousal violence across all provinces and territories, with 83 percent of the victims being female.  Charges were laid in 77 percent of the incidents against female victims.  Whether a charge is laid depends on the province, with police charges most prevalent in Manitoba (92 percent) and Ontario (90 percent) and least prevalent in Newfoundland (56 percent) and New Brunswick (57 percent).  It is not clear why differences exist across provinces for police charges in response to spousal violence.  Some positive news can be found in the midst of these findings: there was a steady decline in police-reported spousal violence between 1998 and 2006.  Police forces recognize that spousal abuse is a continuing problem that requires a serious response.  Unfortunately, the majority of women who are abused by their partner do not call the police. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 160 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectiveChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  A recent study, using data from the Canadian General Social Survey from 1999, examined which demographic and incidence-related variables were related to police-reporting decisions:  Married women were less likely to report violence to the police.  This finding may be due to the stronger financial and emotional ties a married woman has toward her spouse.  In contrast, women with children living at home who witness their abuse were more likely to contact the police.  Minority women were more likely than Caucasian women to report spousal violence.  The likelihood of reporting increases with age, but in older samples this effect is reduced.  Women were also more likely to call the police if they were injured or if a weapon was involved.  If the abuser was drinking during the incident or if he also destroyed property, the victim was more likely to report the abuse.  Police officers responding to calls of domestic violence need to be aware of who is likely to contact them (and, potentially, who is not likely to contact them, despite the presence of abuse).  Knowing this information, they can respond with sensitivity and care. Triggers for Violence  What triggers a man to engage in physical violence? (The question is framed in terms of male violence against a female partner because much of the research has focused on male-initiated violence.)  When battered women are asked about what triggers violent incidents, their answers have included: 1. Not obeying or arguing with the man 2. Not having food ready on time 3. Not caring adequately for the children or home 4. Questioning the man about money or girlfriends 5. Going somewhere without the man’s permission 6. The man suspecting the woman of infidelity 7. Refusing the man sex  Certainly none of the above are acceptable reasons for anyone to use violence.  Nonetheless, it is important to understand what constitutes a trigger in order to challenge these beliefs in treatment programs.  In some countries, men perceive themselves as “owners” of their wives and children and feel that it is justified to use force in certain circumstances.  in Egypt, 57 percent of urban women and 81 percent of rural women agree that a man is justified in beating his wife if she refuses to have sex with him. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 161 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  In New Zealand, the majority of men believe that under no circumstances should you physically abuse a women, although 5 percent agree that physical force would be justified if the man came home and found his wife in bed with another man.  The World Health Organization (2005) study cited earlier asked women under which circumstances a man would be justified in beating his wife.  The reasons most commonly given were not completing housework, refusing to have sex, disobeying her husband, or being unfaithful.  Across all countries, the most widely accepted justification for violence was female infidelity, ranging from 6 percent in Serbia to 80 percent in Ethiopia.  Woman were also asked if they believe a woman has the right to refuse sex if she is ill, if her husband is drunk, if her husband is mistreating her, or if she does not want to have sex.  The most acceptable reason to refuse sex was illness, and the least acceptable reason was if she did not want to have sex.  In some countries, such as Ethiopia and Tanzania, about 20 percent of women felt they did not have the right to refuse sex under any conditions.  In a large survey in the United States (2001), it was found that 98 percent of men did not think it was “ok to hit your wife to keep her in line”; participants were more accepting of women hitting men as compared to men hitting women.  To date there have been no published studies measuring Canadian beliefs about intimate partner violence. Theories of Intimate Violence  Several theories have been proposed to account for intimate violence and include patriarchal theory and social learning theory.  Patriarchal theory assumes a long-standing set of cultural beliefs and values that support the idea that the male dominance of women contributes to the domestic assault of women by men  Often associated with sociology and feminism, the theory was first described in the 1970s.  “the seeds of wife beating lie in the subordination of females and in their subjection to male authority and control”  Patriarchal theory is somewhat challenging to evaluate directly because it is hard to show a causal link between patriarchal attitudes and intimate violence: one study found that the degree of patriarchal attitude was positively correlated with rate of intimate violence; States with higher levels of patriarchal attitudes (as measured by male-dominant norms) had much higher rates of spousal assault than states with less patriarchal attitudes.  Patriarchal theory has been criticized because it provides an incomplete explanation of intimate violence and cannot predict which individuals will engage in it. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 162 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  one expert argues that additional variables are necessary to account for intimate violence, including community (e.g., work, peers), family (e.g., communication level between couple), and individual characteristics (e.g., coping skills, empathy).  social learning theory proposed by Bandura (1973) to explain aggression has three major elements related to aggression: origins, instigators, and regulators.  A key feature of social learning theory is how individuals acquire new behaviours, especially aggression.  A prominent mechanism for learning new behaviours is observational learning, in which an individual models a behaviour that they observe.  Bandura (1973) proposed that observational learning could occur in three contexts: family of origin, the subculture in which a person lives, and the media. Consistent with social learning theory, men who engage in intimate violence are more likely to have witnessed parental violence than men who do not engage in intimate violence  not all behaviour that is observed will be repeated by the observer.  Bandura (1973) argues that for a behaviour to be acquired, it must have functional value for the observer.  Like operant conditioning, behaviour that is rewarded increases the likelihood that it will be repeated, whereas behaviour that is punished decreases its likelihood of being repeated.  Social learning also states that learning also states that acquired behaviours are only manifested if an appropriate event in the environment, called an instigator, acts as a stimulus.  three categories of instigators in intimate violence: aversive instigators, incentive instigators, and delusional instigators.  Aversive instigators are stimuli that the individual attempts to avoid.  They produce emotional arousal, and how a person labels that emotional arousal will affect how they react.  Male batterers have a predisposition to interpret a wide variety of emotional states as anger (described as the “emotional funnel system”).  Incentive instigators are stimuli that are perceived as rewards for engaging in aggression.  When individuals believe they can satisfy their needs by using aggression, they may decide to be violent.  Delusional instigators are associated with bizarre belief systems, such as delusional jealousy, in which an individual erroneously believes their partner to be unfaithful, potentially resulting in aggression.  An additional concept in social learning theory includes the assumption that behaviour is regulated by the outcomes it generates (similar to the concept of reinforcement that underlies operant conditioning).  Regulators include external punishment and self-punishment. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 163 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  External punishments are exogenous forms of punishment, such as when a person is arrested for engaging in violence.  Self-punishment is an internal reaction to the consequences of one’s behaviour that is akin to “having a conscience,” such as when a person feels remorse for engaging in violent behaviour.  According to social learning theory, the likelihood of intimate violence should be reduced if the consequences for violence are exceeded by incentives for engaging in non-violent behaviour and if alternatives are provided to attenuate the effect of any instigators. Male Victims of Intimate Violence  Historically, domestic violence has been conceptualized as male violence against female partners, and this form of violence has been the focus of research and public policy.  However, intimate violence is not solely the province of men acting against women.  Women also initiate violence and, according to some studies, engage in more minor violence than men  In a large study in 2005 it was found that the most frequently occurring type of violence was mutual and mild violence followed by mutual severe violence.  This pattern indicates that, at least for some forms of intimate violence, the long-held belief that males are the primary instigators is false; Recent evidence indicates that it is possible to identify personality and behavioural features in 15-year-old girls that will predict their use of violence in dating relationships at age 21 regardless of whether their male partner uses violence  Mutuality of violence is also found in dating relationships: In a large international study of dating violence among university students in 32 countries it was reported that a slightly higher percentage of women engage in minor violence (e.g., slapping, throwing something at a partner that could hurt) and that equal rates of serious violence occur for men and women.  Gender biases in which men are disadvantaged exist in several other contexts.  A long-standing belief associated with intimate violence is that due to differences in physical size and strength, women are most likely to suffer serious injuries compared to men.  However, several have shown that while it is true that women are more likely to be injured than men as a consequence of intimate violence, the incidence of men being injured by women is surprisingly high.  A gender bias is also present in police responses to domestic violence; when the female partner was injured, the male was charged in 91 percent of the cases; however, when the male was injured, the female was charged only 60 percent of the time. When no injury Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 164 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence occurred, the female was charged in 13 percent of cases as compared to 52 percent of the time for males.  The way courts treat men and women charged with domestic violence also differs: Charges against women are more likely to be dropped by prosecutors and, if charged, women are less likely to be found guilty; in severe injury cases, 71 percent of men and 22 percent of women defendants were found guilty; A major factor for why such a low percentage of women are found guilty was that the male victim was not willing to testify.  gender bias even extends to psychologists: Results showed that the same behaviour was rated more abusive and severe when it was carried out by a male than when carried out by a female.  Almost all prevention and intervention programs target men who abuse their partners.  It is essential that violence by women be recognized and that robust efforts are implemented to end assaults by women. Typologies of Male Batterers  In order to better understand the motivations and characteristics of men who engage in intimate violence and to develop more targeted interventions, researchers have developed typologies or categories of male batterers.  The typology that has received the most attention identifies three types of male batterers based on the severity and frequency of violence, generality of violence, and psychopathological features.  The family-only batterer type displays the following characteristics: 1. Engages in the lowest levels of intimate violence 2. Is infrequently violent outside the home and rarely engages in other criminal acts 3. Does not show much psychopathology 4. Has few risk factors (i.e., witnessing violence as a child, poor relationship skills) 5. Aggression is triggered by stress  The generally violent/antisocial batterer type has the following features: 1. Engages in moderate to high levels of intimate violence 2. Is frequently violent outside the home and engages in other criminal acts 3. Has antisocial and psychopathic personality features 4. Has substance abuse problems 5. Has problems with impulsivity and many violence-supportive beliefs 6. Attachment style best described as dismissive  The dysphoric-borderline batterer type is characterized by: 1. Engages in moderate to severe levels of intimate violence 2. Usually focuses violence on female partners 3. High rates of mood disorders 4. Has borderline personality features such as instability, jealously, and fear of rejection Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 165 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence 5. Experienced childhood abuse 6. Attachment style best described as preoccupied  Several other typologies of male batterers have been proposed that focus on behavioural, psychological, or physiological characteristics.  Other alternative typologies: 1. a three-tier typology based on the severity and generalizability of violence: The Type I or sociopath (accounting for about 10 percent of batterers) engages in the most severe levels of violence in and outside the home. Type II or antisocial (accounting for about 30 to 40 percent of batterers) is primarily violent within the home and is less likely to have a criminal record. The Type III or typical (accounting for 50 to 60 percent of batterers) engages in less severe violence, engages in violence within the home, and is least likely to have a criminal record. 2. Using a psychological perspective, three types of male batterers were identified: the low-risk non-pathological, who engages in family- only violence; the passive aggressive–dependent type with attachment and psychopathological problems; and the antisocial type, who engages in high levels of violence in and outside the home. 3. Working from a physiological perspective, using heart rate of male batterers at rest and during conflict to categorize batterers into groups: Type 1 abusers or the “cobra group” (accounting for 20 percent of the sample) showed a decreased heart rate as they became verbally abusive. Type 1 abusers engaged in high rates of severe violence in and outside the home. Type II or the “pitbull group” (accounting for 80 percent of the sample) showed an increased heart rate as they became verbally abusive. Type II abusers were more insecure and emotionally dependent, and primarily engaged in violence inside the home. 4. evidence for five types of batterers: pathological batterers, sexually violent batterers, generally violent batterers, psychologically violent batterers, and family-only batterers.  The plethora of typologies has led to criticism of the methodology used in this area.  In a recent critique of the male batterer literature, experts point out the methodological deficits of the existing research, including a lack of control groups, inconsistent terminology, and poor measurement of constructs.  Further research is needed to determine how different types of male batterers respond to different types of treatment, what risk factors are associated with each type, and whether different causal mechanisms exist for each type. Victims’ Response to Abuse  The options available to a person determine how they respond to an abusive event. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 166 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectiveChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  One person might leave immediately, whereas another might stay in an abusive relationship - while one person will tell others about the abuse, another will remain silent.  In most cases, leaving an abusive relationship is an extended process, with many women leaving then returning several times before deciding to permanently end the relationship  victims often seek help from a variety of sources—both legal and extra- legal, in their effort to address the violence in their lives  Researchers have found that the following factors can keep an abused women in a relationship: 1. Fear of retribution 2. Lack of economic support 3. Concern for the children 4. Emotional dependence 5. Lack of support from friends and family 6. Hope that the man will change 7. Fear of being socially ostracized (in developing countries)  Abuse does not necessarily end when the abusive relationship ends.  Ending a relationship may subsequently initiate unwanted behaviour by the ex-partner, such as stalking, in a bid to re-start the relationship using intimidation.  This type of behaviour can lead to tragic consequences.  A significant portion of intimate partner homicides occur when the woman makes the decision to leave her abusive mate.  Between 1997 and 2006 in Canada, there were 766 spousal homicides, with 616 being female and 150 being men (Li 2008).  Sixteen percent of the female homicides occurred when the woman was separated from her partner  Most clinicians and researchers agree that seeking help will lessen the long-term impact of battering  Most battered women seek help first from friends and family and some may then seek help from more formal supports (e.g., police, domestic violence shelters).  In a study assessing the help-seeking behaviour of women who had experienced violence (92 percent had experienced intimate partner violence), found that the options women used were not necessarily what they considered the most helpful.  The top five resources used were emotional support from friends or family, professional counselling, medication for emotional problems, welfare, and support group or self-help  Women also indicated the barriers to using resources, categorizing the top five as: “I wanted to handle the problem myself” , “I thought the problem would go away”, “I was unsure about where to go or whom to see”, “I didn’t think treatment would work”, and “I was concerned about how much money it would cost”. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 167 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectivChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  This study suggests that although battered women need emotional support, they also need more tangible support (e.g., housing, financial, child care) that will provide them with the resources necessary to obtain self- sufficiency. Typologies of Female Victims  Little research has been done to develop typologies of battered women.  Recently, a typology was developed that classified victims into five types based on duration and severity of abuse  The features of the Level 1 or short-term group include:  Mild to moderate intensity violence  One to three violent incidents  Less than one year in the dating relationship  Leaving the relationship shortly after the onset of violence  Middle class with secondary or higher education  Presence of caring support system  The features of the Level 2 or intermediate group include:  Moderate to severe intensity violence  Three to fifteen incidents  Cohabitating or recently married for several months to two years  Leaves when the violence escalates  Middle class  Presence of caring support system  The features of the Level 3 or intermittent long-term group include:  Severe intensity violence with long periods without violence  Four to thirty incidents  Married with children  Leaves when children are grown up  Middle to upper class, reliant on husband’s resources  No alternative support systems  The features of the Level 4 or chronic and predictable include:  Severe and frequent violence including use of weapons, forced sexual acts, and death threats; serious injuries sustained  Several hundred violent acts  Married with children  Violence precipitated by substance abuse  Abuse continues until husband is arrested, hospitalized, or dies  Lower to middle class  The features of the Level 5 or homicidal group include:  Severe and frequent violence  Hundreds of severe violent acts  Long-term marriage or separated  Lower class with limited education  Abuse ends when woman kills her partner Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 168 Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian PerspectiveChapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence  Suffers from depression, suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress disorder, and battered woman’s syndrome  this typology provides an initial step toward understanding types of battered women.  additional research is needed to replicate this typology.  Categorizing women this way serves more than an academic purpose.  Intervention can be geared toward different types of battered women based on typology: Level 1 or Level 2 women may benefit from crisis intervention, brief psychotherapy, support groups, and restraining orders; Level 3 and Level 4 types who have experienced more severe violence over longer periods will likely need more intensive psychotherapy. Intimate Violence: What are the Risk Factors?  Like all violence, a combination of individu
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