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PSYC39H3 (177)


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David Nussbaum

PSYC39 –Psychology and Law Lecture 7: Developmental Issues and Juvenile Offending (Chapter 5) Monday, November 5, 2012 The History of Juvenile Justice in Canada Social Theories  Prior to the 19 century – children and youth  Learning by observing others treated like adult offenders  Imitation of behaviour that received positive reinforcement  Juvenile Delinquents Act (1908) – recognized special circumstances of juvenile offenders  Patterson’s coercive family process model  Young Offenders Act (1984) – juvenile offenders (1982) recognized as cognitively different from adults  Link between violent video exposure and aggressive behaviour Young Criminal Justice Act (2003)  Objectives: prevention, responsibility for Risk Factors for Juvenile Offending behaviour, rehabilitation and reintegration of  Individual youth  Familial  Extrajudicial remedies  School  Expanded sentencing options  Peer  Community Trajectories of Juvenile Offenders  Child-onset - behavioural problems start very Main Correlates of Delinquency for Youth early in childhood  Inconsistent and inadequate parenting  Adolescent-onset – show behavioural problems  History of victimization in teen years  Antisocial peer involvement  Negative school attachment Theories to Explain Juvenile Offending  Aggression  Biological theories  Cognitive theories Protective Factors  Social theories  Protective factors and resilience  Effective in the following ways: Biological Theories 1) Reduce negative outcomes  Genetic and physiological differences between 2) Change negative chain reaction antisocial and non-antisocial youth 3) Help develop and maintain self-esteem  Children with an antisocial biological father and self-efficacy 4) Avail opportunity to children more likely to be antisocial  Wadsworth (1976): antisocial youth have slower heart rates  higher threshold for Protective Factors: Domains excitability and emotionality  Individual  Moffitt and Henry (1989): less frontal lobe
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