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PSYC39H3 (172)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

PSYC39 –Psychology and Law Lecture 9: Sexual Offenders (Chapter 9) Monday, November 26, 2012 Scope of Sexual Offending  Hierarchical-Mediational Confluence Model  512,000 people reported being sexually (HMC) assaulted in Canada (2004)  Less than 10% of sexual assaults are reported Finkelhor’s Model  Clearance rates for sexual offences are lower  Explanation of child sexual abuse than for other violent offences (2007)  4 major factors: emotional congruence, sexual  Women & girls are more likely to be victims arousal, blockage, disinhibition  Offending and victimization more common  Not all 4 factors are necessary for sexual abuse among younger people  Offender and victim often know each other Integrated Theory of the Etiology of Sexual Offending Consequences for Victims  Biopsychosocial explanation of sexual offending  Anger against children and adults  Confusion and frustration  Biological, developmental, socio-cultural,  Shock and disbelief transitory situational factors can create  Annoyance proclivity for sexual offending  Fear  Interaction of the above factors produces  Concerns about STDs, pregnancy varying levels of propensity for sexual offending  PTSD, depression, sexual disturbances Quadripartite Model of Sexual Aggress against Paraphilias Adults  DSM: “recurrent, intense sexually arousing  Explanation of sexual assault against women fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally  4 factors: sexual arousal, cognition that justify involving: sexual aggression, affective dyscontrol, 1) Nonhuman objects personality problems 2) The suffering or humiliation of oneself  Not all 4 factors are necessary for assault to or one’s partner occur 3) Children or other nonconsenting persons that occur over a period of at Quadripartite Model of Sexual Aggress against least 6 months” Children  Many paraphilias can manifest as sexual offending:  Explanation of sexual offending against children  4 factors: physiological sexual arousal to o Pedophilia children, cognitive distortions, affective states, o Sexual sadism personality problems o Frotteurism  One or combination of factors may lead to o Exhibitionism o Voyeurism offending Hierarchical-Mediational Confluence Model Explaining Sex Offending  Finkelhor’s Model (HMC)  Etiological model of sexual aggression against  Integrated Theory of the Etiology of Sexual women Offending  2 major paths to sexual aggression: (1)  Quadripartite Model of Sexual Aggression against Adults antisocial path; (2) hostile masculinity path  Empathy and nurturing may moderate the risk  Quadripartite Model of Sexual Aggression factors against Children Massachusetts Treatment Centre: Rapist Typology, Version 3 and 4  4 primary motivations: opportunity, generalized anger, sexual gratification, misogynistic anger  9 types of rapists Researching Initiation Factors  Childhood sexual abuse  Childhood physical abuse  Neglect and emotional abuse  Attachment and family functioning  Deviant sexual interests  General antisociality  Substance abuse Evolutionary Explanation of Rape  Proximal causes (immediate motivations) and  Social skills, social anxiety, and self-esteem ultimate causes (reproductive fitness selection  Beliefs about children, women, and sex offending pressures)  Neurodevelopmental perturbation  Mating effort vs parental investment  Lalumière et al: violence and rape as a way for men to increase their status; 3 groups of Recidvism  Rate of recidivism generally low rapists: young men, competitively  Best predictors of recidivism: sexual deviancy, disadvantaged men, psychopaths antisocial orientation Seto’s Developmental Theory of Child Sexual  Risk factors: o Static – baseline of risk Offending o Stable dynamic – treatment targets &  Etiology of child sexual abuse  Paths: measurement of improvement o Adolescent-limited path (blocked from o Acute dynamic – imminence of recidivism romantic relationships with peers) o Pedophilia path (sexual interest in children) Risk Assessment o Antisociality path (competitive  Approaches: unstructured clinical judgment, disadvantage or psychopathy) empirical actuarial, mechanical, structured professional judgment Typologies  Static-99: empirical actuarial, 10 static items  Massachusetts Treatment Centre: Child  Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide: empirical actuarial, 14 static items Molester Typology, Version 3  Massachusetts Treatment Centre: Rapist Typology, Version 3 and 4 Assessment: Dynamic Factors  Sexual Violence Risk – 20: structured professional judgment, 20 static and dynamic Massachusetts Treatment Centre: Child Molester items Typology, Version 3  2 axis:  Violence Risk Scale – Sexual Offender Version:
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