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Lecture 12

Lecture 12.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Lecture 12-Dec 2 slide 48 in lec 11 Limitations of Existing Risk Instruments • predictive accurracy is only moderately good and inconsistent and none works better than any other • first 2 generations are based on naive empiricism (no theoretical basis, just using whateever seems to work in the literature...whatever seems predictive is included...developed in normative populations)...not any theory of agggression of violence • social learning theory occurs optimally in normative populations o but people with personality disorders have mmotivational or emotional things that preclude social learning o thus, the theory probably doesn't apply optimally to people who are criminal (iff they had it opereating, prob wouldn't be in justice system to begin with) • none of these 4 generation instruments are based on brain function and how such deciisions to do or refrain from behaviours are made *converging validity-more than 1 test with same result One Summary of Research Comparing the Various Risk Assessment Tools • meta-analysis of rhte first 4 instruments • looked at the effect size (how strong is the association between scores on the risk score and violent recidivism) • effect sizes are moderate (less than 0.5) The New 5th Generation: Outline • attempt to add what is known about neurobiology of aggression to improve risk assessment • research has found that the tools that are used to help violent recidivism in community are not good to fight violence in the prisons and vice versa (different instruments are based on different factors) Central Psychobiological model for decisionn-making in problem gambling • green-go in motions o immediate gratification e.g.. food or money o stimulus for immediate gratification, then dopamine activity shoots up (in the reinfrocement centre-nucleus accumbens)  2 dop receptor sites  dopa 1: reward focus: helps person to focus on stimuli  dopa 2: filter distrracting stimuli • serotonin o calm people down o purpose is to inhibit dopamine enough to get the person to stop and think about the l/t costs o people who are overly attentintive to signals of pleasure and gratification, the dopamine surge far out produces the seroturgic response o counters testosterone in the body • testosterone o works to energize and fuel approach to doopamine inducing stimuli • endorphins o naturally occuring opiads in the brain o some drive dopamine up very quickly otheers
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