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Chapter 7 psych and the law.docx

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David Nussbaum

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Chapter 7 Violent Offending General Violence and HomicideIntroductions In this chapter we will review the prevalence and characteristics of violence in Canada We will present the some major theories of violent behavior the major approaches to risk assessment some of the more established risk assessment instruments and research on the predictive accuracy of these instrumentsDefining Aggression and ViolenceHuman aggression has been defined as any behavior directed towards another individual that is carried out with the proximate immediate intent to cause harm In addition the perpetrator must believe that the behavior will harm the target and that the target is motivated to avoid the behavior Violence has been defined as aggression that has extreme harm as its goalPrevalence of Violence Violent crime accounts for approx one in eight criminal incidents in Canada the rate of violent crime has decreased since the early 1990s in 2007 the lowest rate was in Ontario and the highest in SaskatchewanRobbery is often considered a violent offence because it involves at the very least an implied threat of violence In 2007 11 of all robberies in involved a firearm whereas 60 involved no weaponPEI has the lowest rate of robbery and Manitoba the highest Since 1990s robbery has decreased in terms of armed robbery involving a firearm or some other weapon but without a weapon has increased slightlyIn contrast violent crime by youth has increased fairly steadily over the past 20 years According to the GENERAL SOCIAL SURVERY GSS ON VICTIMIZATION reflects reports from the Canadian population aged 15 on their criminal victimization and only 33of violent incidents were reported to the police The reporting rates were highest for robbery 46 physical assaults 39 and sexual assault 8The most common reasons given for not reporting crimes were that the victim dealt with the incident in another way 60 it was not important53 did not want police involved42 felt it was a personal matter39 did not think police involvement could help29 or fear for retaliation from perpetrator11 VICTIM CHARACTERISTICSThe rates of violent victimization were quite similar for men and womenMen were more likely to experience nonsexual violence than women whereas women were more likely to experience sexual violence than men
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