Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
Psychology (7,646)
PSYC39H3 (172)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Naussbaum

Chapter 1 Crime in Canada • -Around 44 percent of Canadians, believe that we should get tough on crime • -Although they do not state where the funds should be allocated within the system • Government information regarding crime had a moderate influence on canadians, and academic had none. Media was seen as the most important source Current Context • Forsenic psychology:Any application of psychology to the legal system • The specific psychological study of criminal behaviour, is called correctional study in the US and America (also criminological pychology) • As many as 70% of offenders, follow age curved path of crime • Crime Desistance: crime decreasing • The personal, interpersonal, and commuinity reinforcment refelcts both immediate and historical factors • immediate situation in that facors-temptations,facilators, inhihitators • Also highlights that crime influenced by attitudes supporitve of crime,a history of criminal behaviour, a balance of the costs and rewards to engage in criminal behaviour, presence of social supports for crime • Also highlights the contributions of community, interpersonal, early conduct problems, biological factors such as temperament and verbal intelligence • This theory is known as cognitive social learning theory of crime • Quite similar to contemporary criminological viewpoints Definitions of Crime • Typical definitions include moral, legal, social and psychological explanations • There is high agreement to what is criminal • For example, incest, robbery, theft were all seen as criminal • Our definition incorporates intent • Adefinition of crime is critial as it influences prevalence Determinants of Crime • Meta analysis are used to determine what the most important determinants of crime are • Look at table 1.1. page 11, central 8 factors • Dynamic risk factors are those factors that are not static, (antisocial cognition, substance abuse) • The confience level for minor risk factors are “o”, which indicates that on average there is no relationship between predictator variables nad behaviour • These major risk factors are criminogenic, that they are empirically related to criminal conduct Impact of Risk and Need Model of Criminal Conduct • Aprovincial study determined that all provinces expect for Quebec utilize some form of risk and need assessment modeled after major risk factors • Most use variants of either Wisconcsin Model or level of service industry • Federal correction system (correctional service of canada CSC), uses an offender intake assessment based on wisconcisn model • Assessment was recently refined and named Dyanmic factor indentification analysis, • Level of service industry model it has also been adopted for use internationally most notably US Role of Substance use • Around 50 percent of federal offenders report drug abuse, 60 percent regular alcohol abuse, same research noted that approx 50 percent of federal offenders report using drugs or alcohol prior to or during commission of crimes • Alcohol is more related to interpersonal conflict, whilst drugs are related to acquistive violence(roberry) • Substance abuse impliacted for sexual offenders, where rapists and child molesters report higher levels of alcohol consumption Linking the research to case studies • Paul Berna
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