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PSYC55H3 (34)
Andy Lee (27)

PSYC55 lec 2 jan 17.docx

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Andy Lee

PSYC55- lec 2 (jan 17 , 2011) - Terminology: Anterior, posterior, dorsal (back), ventral (under)  Rostral, caudal, superior, inferior - Terminology after slicing brain: horizontal, coronal, sagittal o When MRI, all three slices needed, don’t all have to be perpendicular to eachother o Horizontal also = transverse/axial - Anterior commissure is used to centre slices provides good coverage of entire brain Division of NS CNS: organized in hierarchy - Very bottom : components of CNS that mediates stuff such as reflexes - Middle: sensory/motor processing - Cerbral lobes: executive functioning, more evolutionary advanced Allocortex: oldest parts of the brain, mesocortex after allo, and neocortex is the newest and most advanced Main subdivisions of CNS: Medulla Brainstem: pons and medulla Medulla – lowest level of brain stem. motor fibres control body contralaterally. This crossover occurs in the Medulla. o RAS: circadian rhythms. Interacts a little bit with higher cognitive function. o If damage to Medulla, it is fatal (stroke/tumor) Pons: Higher up than Medulla sits superior to medulla. Anterior to cerebellum (sits infront of it) o Contains certain types of nuclei o Superior olive: info from ears to brain, in aprticuar to auditory cortex Midbrain: alot of different nuclei. Part of RAS o Superior colliculus: visual processing nuclei o Inferior colliculus: attention to auditory stimuli (auditory localization) Cerebellum: believed to be involved in very fine, coordinated movement, timing o Organized ipsilaterally o Divided into two hemispheres:  Right hemisphere: innervates right hand side of body  Left hemisphere: innervates left hand side of body o Damage: interferes with precision of movements. Not stopping movement  Effects time understanding and intervals o We don’t know a lot about cerebellum beyond motor control Diencephalon: Thalamus- *don’t need to know all names of sections  Convergence of information that then goes to different parts of the cortex  Higher order processes inparticular to memory  Medial geniculate: auditory  Lateral geniculate: visual processing  Pulvinar: parietal and temporal projections  Different nuclei of thalamus project to different parts of cerebral hemispheres Hypothalamus: hormone regulation, thirst and feeding and hunger regulation  Maybe some involvement in anorexia and bulimia- control (satiety centres)  Circadian cycle Basal Ganglia: high involvement in motor activity  Key players is globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and striatum  Different nuclei are relatively spread out from eachother  Two of each nuclei, one in each hemisphere o Involved in executive functioning o Ventral striatum is involved in rewards ystem Limbic System: emotion processing only at first. Now we know it does other processes as well o Hippocampus: memory as well as emotion o Amygdale is main emotion centre o Hippocampus sits behind amygdale o Amygdale sits infront/slightly above hippocampus o Very close with eachother, alot of interaction between two structures Cerebral cortex: what makes us unique from other animals o Dolphins, apes and monkeys have similar amounts o Very large surface area (folded cortex) o Mesocortex can also be upto 6 layes, neocortex is 6 layers and allocortex is 1-4 layers of cell o Bottom of a sulcus is called a fundus o Protruded areas around sulcus is called the bank o White matter: axons o Grey matters: cell bodies and dendrites, no myelin sheets o Broadmann: cytoarchitecture, numbers assigned arbitrarily o Central sulcus: divides anterior and posterior. Frontal and parietal o Sylvian culcus: divides frontal and temporal lobe o Motor and somatosensory: areas that sit on either side of the central sulcus  Contralateral control  Primary motor cortex: more fine
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