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PSYC62H3 (139)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Suzanne Erb

PSYC62: Drugs and the Brain Lecture 1: Introduction and Drug Classification (Chapter 1 and 2) Defining Pharmacology and Psychopharmacology  Pharmacology: Discipline that examines the effects that drugs have on biological systems (including nervous and non- nervous tissues)  Psychopharmacology: Discipline that examines the effects that drugs have on behavior and mental processes, including cognitions and emotions Defining pharmacology and psychopharmacology  What distinguishes a course in psychopharmacology from one in pharmacology? Defining Drugs  Miriam Webster Dictionary: 1. A substance used in a medication or in the preparation of medication. 2. A substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease. 3. Something and often an illegal substance, that causes addiction, habituation, or a marked change in consciousness. 4. A substance that affects the structure or function of the body.  Oxford medical dictionary o Any substance that affects the structure or functioning of a living organism.  Grilly, 2006 o A chemical that affects one or more biological processes  How about…. o A substance or chemical that, when ingested/injected for the purpose of altering biological function, affects one or more biological processes. Defining Drugs  Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that induce psychological effects by altering the normal biochemical reactions that take place in the nervous system (Grilly and Salamone, 2011) A Historical Perspective  Humans have used drugs for the purposes of altering mood and behaviour for thousands of years.  What would be some examples of ancient practices of drug use in recreational or religious settings?  What would be some examples of early usages of drugs in pharmacotherapy? A Historical Perspective th  A revolution in psychopharmacology was observed in the mid-20 century.  What inspired this revolution?  Discovery of a drug called Chlorpromazine for the treatment of Schizophrenia A Historical Perspective  Other early contributors to the revolution in psychopharmacology included: o Lithium o LSD Recreational and Social Drug Use  Most individuals in society, at one time or another, use psychoactive substances recreationally  What are some examples of commonly used, non-illicit recreational drugs?  What are some examples of illicit recreational drugs? Recreational and Social Drug Use Common Drug Classification Strategies 1. Classification by molecular structure 2. Classification according to activation in the CNS (stimulants vs depressants) 3. Classification according to primary medical use 4. Classification by basic neurochemical action 5. Classification by schedule of control New Drug Development  Sources of drug discovery: 1. Natural resources: e.g., Soil, plants, sea 2. Biochemical synthesis New Drug Development  Discovery of new drugs occurs in 1 of 3 ways: 1. Rediscovery of ‘folk’ usages of various naturally occurring products.  e.g., willow bark 2. Accidental observation of an unexpected drug effect.  e.g., ibogaine 3. Synthesizing of known or novel compounds.  e.g., benzodiazepine agonist (valium) New Drug Development  Stages in the testing and marketing of a drug 1. Belief that a particular compound has clinical value. 2. Preclinical and clinical studies. 3. Licensing an
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