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PSYC62H3 (139)
Lecture 9


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Suzanne Erb

PSYC62: LECTURE 9 – DISSOCIATIVE ANESTHETICS, PSYCHEDELICS AND HALLUCINOGENS MONDAY 4 PM – 2 HARD COPIES BOUND TOGETHER NO LECTURE CANNABIS IS SELF-EXPLANATORY Dissociative Anesthetics, Psychedelics, Hallucinogens  Alters consciousness  Psychotomometic drugs – mimic functions of psychoses like schizophrenia  Psychedelics – LSD expands the mind  Whether these drugs really expands the mind is controversial  Hallucinogens is most commonly used to classify these drugs  Produce sensory disruptions etc.  Misleading b/c they produce hallucinations, but do other things like pround effects on mood thinking physio  More than 90 diff plants and synthetic agents that can produce these effects  Monoamine-related substances also referred to as serotonin related – primary monoamine system o MDMA – ecstasy o LSD – synthetic o Mescaline and psilocybin are like LSD – derived from mushroom  Cannabinoids can be a family of themselves as they have some unique properties  Anticholinergic drugs act on cholinergic receptors in brain and produce a dream like trance from which user awakens from little recollection of events o Involved in memory  Dissociative anesthetics (schedule 2 & 3) o PCP – angel dust o Ketamine o Ability to produce surgical anesthesia without patient losing complete consciousness o Act at receptors that influence transmission in glutamate systems Monoamine drugs – ecstasy – very recent is classified as a schedule 1 drug LSD is a schedule drug 3 in Canada, but drug 1 in US Morphine is a schedule 1 drug In Canada now Monoamine-related substances LOOK UP ANTICHOLINERGICS AND DISSOCIATIVE ANESTHETICS IN TEXTBOOK ECSTASY  Controversial drug  Considered for it’s potential therapeutic drugs in treatment for anxiety and PTSD  Has profound mood altering effects and dependence properties  Potentially toxic effects  New drug – not enough time to understand its effects  Not popular before late 1990s  After 2001, we see a decline in ecstasy usage due to publicity of adverse effects of MDMA o Caused brain damage and could lead to death  Prevalent on college and university campuses  Needs further investigation Statistics  A lot of Canadians are experimenting with ecstasy Methylated Amphetamines  Chemical structure  Serotenergic  DOM in structure and effects similar to mescaline  MDA, MDMA and MDE are more similar in structure and effects to amphetamines o Induce mild state of euphoria accompanied by feelings of openness and empathy o Lack of defensiveness o Treat anxiety and personality disorders  MDMA may be classified as a hallucinogen with their behavior effects  Amphetamine b/c of similar structure and pharmacological effects like psychostimulants  Others classify it as a group on it’s own b/c of it’s unique effects Ecstasy  Derivative of amphetamine  Most typically taken orally in tablet form  Can be injected or snorted  Absorbed rapidly with effects lasting 6-8 hrs  Synthesized in illegal laboratories o Alterating structure of amphetamine molecule o Purity can vary from lab to lab o Other compounds can be easily combined into same tablets o Contaminants – caffeine, etc. methamphetamine  Potential danger as user doesn’t know what they’re about to consume in term
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