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CHAPTER 2-Drug Classification & Behavioural Assessment.docx

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Suzanne Erb

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CHAPTER 2: DRUG CLASSIFICATION & BEHAVIOURAL ASSESSMENT -drugs with almost identical molecular structures may induce different effects, while other drugs whose molecular structures are different may induce almost identical effects -some drugs at one effect at one dose & a different effect at another -drug may have multiple psychological effects in a certain dose range -some effects may be desirable to one person & undesirable to another -i.e. weed reduces nausea for some cancer patients or clouding of consciousness in others DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS BASED UPON BEHAVIORAL OR THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS -no universal agreement on how to classify drugs -advantages to using classification system -when new drug discovered & it is said to have a profile of i.e. anxiolytic or stimulant, it conveys some meaning about the effects -indicates that drug shares a profile of effects with other drugs that already belong to that class -drugs classified as “major psychomotor stimulants” share a set of properties i.e. enhancing attention & increasing various types of motor activities Antipsychotic: share the same symptoms of schizophrenia i.e. hallucinations & delusions & useful for treating mania LIMITATION- many drugs that are classed as sedatives hypnotics induce stimulant-like effects or behavioural disinhibition at low doses i.e. ethyl alcohol Antidepressants: used to treat anxiety, while anxiolytics used to treat depression .:. Each theraputic category there are drugs that are labelled atypical because they show unusual preclinical or clinical profile i.e. clozapine considered atypical antipsychotic & buspirone classified as atypical anxiolytic -some drugs that defy categorization bc they exert actions that cross several categories & don’t fit into any one category i.e. delta-9-> some properties of sedative-hypnotic, stimulant &mild hallucinogen…doesn’t fit into one class OR MDMA-> some properties of stimulant & hallucinogen…shouldn’t be in category & a newer category (entacogen) -therapeutic effects assessed by rating scales i.e. -Hamilton depression rating scale or beck depression inventory used to assess the effects of antidepressant drugs -Hamilton anxiety scale used to measure anxiolytic effects -Brief psychiatric rating scale & positive & negative syndrome scale used to measure antipsychotic drug effects -wide variety of animal tests also used to assess effects of drugs =animal models = tests i.e. elevated plus maze ` DRUG CLASSIFICATION BASED UPON BASIC NEUROCHEMEICAL ACTIONS -ability of a drug to induce a behavioural effect is dependent upon its ability to alter the process of chemical transmission in the nervous system -five basic stages of neurotransmission 1. Synthesis 2. Storage 3. Release 4. Postsynaptic action 5. Inactivation -action of a drug can be described as the intersection of the transmission process being affected and the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator being affected …i.e. increase dopamine synthesis or block serotonin storage DRUG NAMES AND MEDICAL USES OF DRUGS When pharmaceutical company discovers/synthesizes new d
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