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Chapter 13

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 13 – The Developmental Point of View Introduction  Developmental psychology is assumed to be concerned with the study of children however developmental psychology and child psychology is not the same thing  The concept of development is known as a gradual unfolding, other theorists believes development to be synonymous to evolution and do not see it to be predetermined  Another meaning of development is “bringing out the latent capabilities” of a person  We will see that there are still more variations on the meaning of development G. Stanley Hall The Theory of Recapitulation  Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny views humans development similar to that of evolution, a concrete explain of this is when a embryo’s brain first resembles a fish then a reptile in the second stage and so on Hall’s Recapitulations  Hall’s version of the recapitulation principle was informed by a deeply religious sensibility, he believed that the historical order in which religions emerged was indicative of their developmental status Questionnaires  Hall and his co-workers gathered data on childhood activities through the use of questionnaires  Hall’s questionnaire approach was influential; the child study movement was the most popular educational movement of the 1890’s this was because of the strong bond between psychologists and teachers Adolescence  Hall is known for drawing attention to adolescence as a period of storm and stress  Religious education had importance during adolescence as religious conversion led the child from being egocentric to altruistic  Hall’s questionnaires established the first “normal science” James Mark Baldwin - Baldwin ran the John Hopkins psychology department until he was caught in a whore house and was forced to resign. Which is when john Watson took over the Hopkins department - Baldwin became a chair at UoftT Psychology of Mental Development - Baldwin believed that the mind developed in the individual and was not always present in the same form - He did not believe in a rigid set of developmental laws and only very general norms could be formulated - Development occurs through a series of interactions between the child and the environment - He created terms such as assimilation, refers to the tendency to respond to the environment in familiar and adaptive ways - Accommodation, in contrast, is the tendency to respond to the environment in the novel ways that changing circumstances may require - Imitation is the major way in which accommodation takes place. By imitating events in the environment the organism develops new responses. - Development involves both accommodation and imitation Heinz Werner  His interests were in the psychology of art and was approached from a genetic point of view  Werner treated his students with unusual respect and treated women the same as men which was new at the time The Comparative Psychology of Mental development  His approach to development was comparative in the sense of examining the relation between development processes in different cultures as well as different species  Werners approach was also organismic meaning that behavior must be considered in relation to the context of total organismic activity  The orthogenetic principle is that development starts at a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation Uniformity vs. multi-formity  the issue is whether behavior tends to converge from isolated units toward integrated wholes or whether it becomes increasingly multiform  after examining behavior it is seen that it happens both ways  the ability of children to identify word meanings develops uniformly with age, however the methods children use to arrive at a solution are quite varied and they demonstrate that the processes underlying development are multi-form  process analysis examines the way in which a person arrives at a particular achievement, it is more important to understand how a child arrives at an answer rather than the answer itself Continuity vs. Discontinuity  Werner believed development had both a discontinuous and continuous properties  Emergence means that later forms of behavior have properties not found in earlier forms Unilinearity versus Multilinearity  Werner recognized individual differences in development as specializations or aberrations  Physiognomic perception involves experiencing the expressive quality of things, such as the friendliness of a face, Werner believed this perception is used by children and that as you get older you see it more objectively  A uni-linear aspect of development is the way in which organism-environment interactions progress. First are just primitive reflexive responses to the environment. Next is a sensori-motor form of interaction such as using tools by apes which shows that they are able to understand they are different from the environment. Lastly is the contemplative stage where the ape is able to construct tools and use it to manipulate the environment Fixity versus Mobility 
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