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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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Michelle Hilscher

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Lecture 3 May 21 2014Aristotle 384322 BCEPlatos student who believed that were born with perfect shared universal knowledge To work with this knowledge we need disciplined reasoningContributions to psychologyWhole works on memory dreamsethicsStrongly empirical believed in making observations and collecting dataObservations led him to believe heart was organ of cognition oIn chicks its the organ that develops the fastestfirst organ to have activityoLooking at warriors who came back from battle those who were wounded in the heart were more likely to die than those who received head injuriesIdeas about mind and body3 types of psyche each with own functions ranked below from most basic to most complexoNutritive plants simplest structure in nature It can grow take in nutrients slefmaintain reproduceoSensitive animalscan do same things as nutritive but its more complex Can sense world feel pleasurepain can imagine perform simple memory tasks locomotion oRational humans Deliberation weighing of goals decision making2 key differences between people and animalsThere are emotions that are uncontrolled in animals Humans have emotions but it is balanced by rationalityMemoryHierarchy of naturehierarchy of psychological functioningAristotles scala naturae illustrates the process of entelechy oProcess of change by which mere potential becomes actual through the realization of formexample acornoak eggchickDeveloped the scala naturae ranked below from lowest to highest rankingoPrime matter simplest things in nature hydrogen oxygenoPrimary bodies mixtures of the prime matteroPlantsoAnimalsoHumansoUnmoved mover pure actualitygods deitiesPlato wouldnt be able to put his human soul directional soul idea on this because the soul is noncorporealAristotles ideas about knowledgeSensory experience is imperative for knowledgeTabula rasa were born as a blank slate and have to find our own knowledgeThere are no universalsSensation for AristotleSpecial sensibles property of an object discernible by only one sensory systemtexture sound colour vs common sensibles can identify it with many sensory systemsMemory for AristotleRecall simple memory automatic vs recollection only attributable to rational human aspectconscious effortSimple memory follows three laws of associationoSimilarityoContrastoContinuityTimelineCirca 650 BCEAncient smallscale societies using folktales and myths to explain thingsHigh class were told to be more emotional and think things overLower class were more likely to use mythical reasoning told to be less emotional in order to try to move up out of their classCirca 600 BCE400 BCEThe Greek AgeTime period set up for change of thought
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