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Lecture 2

LECTURE 2.docx

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NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE?: how is it stored in the mind, in what form is it in us? whether or not we are born knowing things? in some theories, knowledge is innate (born with), a priori posteriori: thru education/nurturing, born as a clean slate. - early in egyptian history, early king wondered if language is innate? born with it. - children didnt learn egyptian unless they were socialized. how do we decide whats right or wrong/morality? - how a moral code and beliefs abt right and wrong drive our decision making and behaviours in everyday life EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY: - why particular psychological ocurences take place? thought psyc developed i n1800s, you had folks earlier questioning the same questions we have now small scale societies thought of things as no different than other natrural phenomena liek weather, illness in bodies etc.. things that are very salient in life they came up with a theory based on mere coincident. i have a cold - saw a black cat, i have no other system to explain it, tryt o link it with other events in natural world around you, it equips you with the ability to predictt what will happen to you. based on chance observation about events that co occur in the world. its not systematic greek mythology: 2 systems of looking at the world: apollo: sun god = sun religion:leaves external structures with forces of internal body? (ie emotions get link to actions you observe in the world around you) emotions are hard to interpret. external forces: something you could talk about to others that helped make concrete. adaptive value:magic 1)its an alternative to not knowing and not being able to answer things. (feeling of uncertainty and lack of control, so you constructa system of explanation) gives u the sense of having explanations. RELIGION OF THE OLYMPIAN GODS: - no after world, no heaven or hell. pass through this intermidiory space where your nothing, no soul, no conscious just shadow, these shape life styles models the lifestyle of those in society who are previliged (wealthy & enjoying indiividuals) its okay to have that life style, because you will not be going to a place in the hereafter which is enjoyable. if you have the means to do so, live emotionally, passionately, indulge now, nothing in the future. what is then apropriate?moral choice? it all depends on the social stature of your family, your beings like your wealth in which you indulge in a particular life style. and then you follow a religious perspective that tells you directly tto follow your psychological ..... the other approach: dionysus what happens if you have the means of luxury? orphic mystery religious view those who support the leasure class ( the slaves/foregin workers) occupy potentially chaotic life style. religion was a way to encourage to work hard, promises them that living a life based on hard work and self discipline, will free the soul from the body. two theories about psychology of how ones to live, emotionally or not. and so these theories are linked with religious views at the time. THE GREEK AGE: people travel and bring new knowledge and systems for considering how world works and new ways of thinking of human psychology and commercial prosperity, then people are not just farmers or in agriculture, then you have people who are making lto of money cause theyre able to sell goods, and are able to focus on learning and not just to think about more abstract things. colonial expansions: people going out for bringing back new ways of thinking abt world and self. what can science do for you? build thingd/houses/ships/geography/navigation. if you want to be successful in trade life style. no longer appreciatiog for abstract question but what science can do in terms of engineering. absence of religious dogmatism: because there were so many ppl from so many diff places in coastal cities, there wasnt a restraint, you could think what you want to, there were people who thought everypossible thing ancient greek sciences: set up foundation for more sytematic ways of thinking about things in the world whats the mind made of? naturalist: biologist = what the universe is, their type of answer is biological, material elements of the world. figure out what types of materials make it up/organiz procvesses that take palce in the natural world: inductive process that naturalists believe is. LOOK at the world, use your skills and percetpion to make observation about natural phenomena, and also look within your self. observe what goes on , how it feels and make internal observation abotu your emotions. observe the external and internal world. these observation are valueable as they guide you in building a theory about what universe is made of and how you function. formalist: focus productively on math, the mathematical relationships between particular terms.. and its through math calculations and stratification that we understand the nature of universe. close your mind to anything out there. dont worry about how your body feels. dont think about your emotions. the only suitable thing you should do is reason about mathematical relations. use not an inductive process, a dedcuctive process where you focus on mathematical rules that are believed to be innate. rules that everybody is born knowing. for formalist, you focus on math absolutes, the math rules of relations because they reflect the universe. assumed that universe has an intuitively mathematical structure. put here by the how do they think about the universe and how human mind workds? they both accept 2 things as true: they both agree that perception is dynamic. it changes over time (how we see the world) it changes from moment to moment. how we see or feel or smel or taste or touch some object, can change over time. PERCEPTION AND FLUX IS DYNAMIC they also agre emtions are dynamic, how we feel abotu self and others changes from day to day and moment to moment. theyre talking about themselves who are making observations. naturalist: we percieve the world in a way that matches how th euniverse functions , becasuse they believe our funcgioning is no diff than universes. formalist: universe is governed by very strict math rules. which means it doesnt change. its fixed in a static kind of existence. if we are to follow our perceptual system, we will beconvinced it more complicated than it actuakllky is, so we should focus on math rules. that we already know in reasoning deductively about them. focusing on perceptions of the outside world. we will be lead to fallacy if we do that. functions, perceptions, actions to change objects and evenbt in the world . all of thse are productys of a body that dies. so functions like perception and actions are seen as corrupted. theyre given a moral categorization of being corrupt. THEYRE ONLY MAKING OBSERVATIONS AND buildign theories out of them. one step up from those who are doing the physical labor (farmers, soldiers etc) theres a social structure ocming out of the theories and scientific methods people who are practicing the earliest steps of scientif
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