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Reference Guide

College Psychology - Reference Guides

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Psychology
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permacharts MT College Psychology College Psychology 2nd EDITION CLASSICAL CONDITIONING MAIN PERSPECTIVES • Learning based on subject associating different events that predict Behavioral Behavior is a result each other; based on reflexive behaviors and automatic responses of learned responses from environment to stimuli • Founded by Ivan Pavlov Biological Behavior is a result of innate, hereditary, and physical processes created through • Pavlov is best known for his experiments which conditioned dogs evolution to salivate to an ambiguous stimulus Cognitive Behavior depends on how we perceive situation, and our abilities to process, store, C LASSICAL CONDITIONING STEPS deal with, and retrieve information • Example uses food (stimulus) and salivation (response) Humanistic Behavior is freely chosen by individual, and • An unconditioned stimuli (UCS) that elicits an unconditioned not shaped by uncontrollable forces response (UCR) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS); it begins Psychoanalytic Behavior is a result of unconscious drives to elicit the response on its own, which is referred to as a conditioned response (CR) (such as sexual, aggressive) and conflicts often left unresolved in childhood UCS food (alone) = UCR salivation Social-cultural Behavior varies across situations and cultures CS tone (alone) = NOTHING UCS + CS = UCR salivation CS tone (alone) = CR salivation TERMINOLOGY Word Description Discrimination Learning to distinguish between similar OPERANT CONDITIONING stimuli and only responding to the CS • Learning to repeat rewarded Extinction A decline in CR occurs after conditioning behavior or extinguish punished when CS is repeated many times without UCS behavior Generalization Tendency to respond not only to CS but to • Founded by B.F. Skinner similar stimuli • Extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and Spontaneous CR returns after extinction when CS discrimination work the same Recovery introduced again, a few hours later way as in classical conditioning REINFORCEMENT • Primary reinforcers are innate; RESEARCH TECHNIQUES secondary reinforcers are learned DESCRIPTION B.F. Skinner • Description is the simplest form of research Type Stimulus Probability of Response • It involves observing and recording behavior Positive Reinforcer Presented Increases Type Description Constraints Negative Reinforcer Withdrawn Increases Case Study Study individuals in Time consuming; depth to find universal individual may be Punishment Presented Decreases Schedule Behavior Reinforced truths about people atypical Continuous Following every desired response Naturalistic- Observe and record Intrusions on Fixed-ratio Following set number of responses Observation behavior of subject in subject’s natural environment environment Variable-ratio Following random number of responses may alter natural Fixed-interval On response, following a set time limit behavior Variable-interval On response, following a random time limit Survey Study many individuals Questions must in less depth through be clear; relies on TERMINOLOGY subjects self-report representativeness of behavior of subjects as well Word Description as their honesty Premack’s Anything can be reinforced by something EXPERIMENTATION Principle more preferred Shaping Rewards guide behavior in small steps toward • Most important research technique more desired behavior • Manipulation of single variable while holding all others Skinner Box Soundproof box with a recordable device that constant animal manipulates to release reinforcer • Causation can be determined Successive The small steps in shaping approximations • Usually done in lab; experiments may be deemed artificial 1 COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-807-9 www.permacharts .com © 1996-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (CONT’D) EXPERIMENT FUNCTIONS CORRELATION Control The group in which subjects are Independent The environmental variable • Statistical measurement of the Group not exposed to the independent Variable that is manipulated relationship between two variable • Used in comparison variables that describes how with experimental group to Placebo Substance used in treatment said they vary together to be same as real treatment, but evaluate treatment effect is actually inactive • May trigger • Positive correlation means Dependent The behavior that is observed or same effect that subject believes that the two variables increase Variable measured is caused by actual treatment or decrease together • Negative correlation means Double-blind Neither subject nor experimenter Random Feature of experiments in that there is an inverse Procedure knows who has placebo or Assignment which subjects are assigned to relationship (one variable actual treatment (minimize bias) two groups by chance • Avoid Experimental The group in which subjects are differences by dividing subjects increases while other decreases) into equal groups using random • Correlation enables prediction; Group exposed to the independent selection it does not imply causation variable DEVELOPMENT • Many psychologists have developed stages of life development that they assume most people move through Theorist Approx. Age Range (Years) Stage Description Erikson Birth to 1 Trust vs. Mistrust Infant develops trust if needs are met Freud Birth to 1.5 Oral Pleasure center is mouth Piaget Birth to 2 Sensorimotor Experiences world through senses Erikson 1 to 2 Autonomy vs Shame Learns confidence and independence and Doubt Freud 1.5 to 3 Anal Learns control and pleasure of bowel/bladder Piaget 2 to 6 Preoperational Can use words but cannot reason Erikson 3 to 5 Initiative vs. Guilt Learns initiative and self-control Freud 3 to 6 Phallic Learns pleasure of genitals Piaget 7 to 11 Concrete Operational Learns logic and arithmetic Erikson 6 to puberty Competence Learns to feel adequate Sigmund Freud vs. Inferiority Freud 6 to puberty Latency Represses sexuality Piaget 12 to adulthood Formal Operational Learns abstract reasoning skills Erikson Teen to 20s Identity vs. Creates Experiments and eventually role confusion Own Identity Freud Puberty to adulthood Genital Sexual interest matures Erikson 20s to 40s Intimacy vs. Isolation Can form relationships and love intimately Erikson 40s to 60s Middle Adulthood Contributes to world through family and work Erikson 60s to death Integrity vs. Despair Reflects on life and accomplishments MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • According to Abraham Self- Maslow, throughout life, a actualization Highest human need developing person needs to = need to live up fulfill basic needs of food and to full potential shelter first, and then spend energy on more unique human needs, like love and Esteem Needs = need for acceptance recognition, respect, etc. • Finally, they can strive to Uniquely human needs achieve the highest need, Belongingness and Love Needs = need for love which is living to their full potential and acceptance • These self-actualized people may experience brief flashes of insight or heightened Safety Needs = need to feel safe, secure, and stable awareness, a phenomenon Basic needs Maslow calls “peak- Physiological Needs= need for food and drink experiences” 2 COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-807-9 w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m © 1996-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS PHYSIOLOGY ANXIETY DISORDERS NERVOUS SYSTEM Compulsions Actions that are continually Central Nervous The brain and spinal cord performed so that they System (CNS) interfere with life • Usually The Peripheral Everything else; divided into two parts begin in late teens and early Nervous System (PNS) twenties Somatic System Gets input from senses and directs the skeletal Generalized General unfounded musculature Anxiety apprehension about near Disorder future; sweaty palms, racing Autonomic Nervous Runs automatic parts of body (such as organs) that are System (ANS) part of basic life processes; divided into two parts heart; may have panic attacks (short intense debilitating Sympathetic Division Arouses body (such as speed up heart) anxiety, unpredictable onset) Parasympathetic Does the opposite (such as sl
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