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Reference Guide

Developmental Psychology - Reference Guides

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Psychology
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permacharts TM Developmental Psychologyy 2nd EDITION INFANCY DEVELOPMENTAL • Infancy is regarded as birth to about 1 to 2 years old or when language skills have developed SKILLS DEVELOPMENT OF SENSATION & PERCEPTION DEVELOPMENT SPEECH SKILLS • Olfaction in infancy is one of the strongest • Newborns are sensitive to light and Age (months) Skill senses movement from birth 1 to 4 Cooing • After 1 week, infants may detect their mother • Children generally focus on single features 3 to 6 Babbling by smell alone until 2 months old, then can scan an object for features (such as a human face), recognize (mono-syllables) • Sense of taste is also strong in infants, and 7 to 9 Two syllable may develop in the womb due to the strong mother’s face by about 3 months of age, and babbling taste of amniotic fluid discriminate between some expressions 12 First words • Infants show a strong preference for sweet- • Usually takes 6 months to 1 year before vision tasting foods achieves full potential, and about 2 to 3 18 to 24 Begin to string months to fully perceive color two words • Tactile perception on different areas of the together body generates specific reflexes in infancy • Tests with the visual cliff show that, by the (such as grasping, sucking) time they are crawling (6 months to 1 year), • Pain sensation is not strong at birth but infants have generally developed depth DEVELOPMENT OF GROSS develops rapidly perception by using binocular cues (given by MOTOR SKILLS slightly different images presented by two • Although sensitivity to sound increases from eyes) Age (months) Skill birth, it has been shown that, even within the • Some studies have shown that pictorial cues 1 to 2 Lifts head 45˚ womb, babies can perceive sound (while lying on • Usually takes 6 months before hearing techniques used by artists to convey depth) stomach) achieves full potential are also perceivable by infants 2 to 3 Lifts chest LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT while lying on stomach • Studies have shown that infants can perceive • Exposure to speech (supported by the distinctive sounds used to form words (passive exposure) is arms) (phonemes) not as effective as 3 Rolls over • Infants 6 to 8 months old can distinguish being challenged to 4 Sits with speech sounds from other languages better use language skills support, holds than adults, but lose this ability by the time (active exposure) own head they are 1 year old • Use of question steady • By the first year, they usually understand words develop in a simple sentences (even though they cannot certain order; what 6 to 7 Sits without produce them) and where usually precede why and how support • Early childhood is critical to language 10 Stands with • Environment plays a large part in language learning; children deprived of these skills at an support growth; exposure to parents and siblings is early age do not typically develop normal 11 Crawls required for an expanded vocabulary language skills 11 to 12 Stands alone (briefly) COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 12 to 14 Walks alone • Newborns are capable of learning, which • Operant conditioning has been seen in occurs as a result of being exposed to stimuli infants 2 to 3 days old • Studies show that infant responses to • Studies that condition essential biological MOTOR SKILLSOF FINE repeated stimuli eventually fade (for example, responses (for example, feeding, salivating) habituation) have shown the best results (even in infants Age (months) Skill only days old); infant alertness plays a factor • Classical conditioning is also shown to be a 1 Holds objects factor in infant cognitive development in their ability to learn, as well as the time in one hand • Observational learning has been seen in interval between the conditioned and 1 to 2 Moves held infants as young as 2 to 3 weeks old (facial unconditional stimuli objects, rotates expressions of an adult) • All types of learning grow stronger as the them child ages 3 to 4 Visually PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT reaches for objects, shakes • Rate of body growth is faster during first 6 depends on environmental factors them 4 to 6 Starts to use months of life than during any other time • Development of each new motor skill opens • Skills needed to walk (such as maintaining up new cognitive and perceptual and coordinate upright posture, balance) usually develop opportunities, thus use of both around the first year of age helping to hands • Infants do not seem to need visual cues to advance 13 Can use development thumb and maintain balance but rely instead on inner ear in those hand in pincer cues; some studies show that visual cues movement to actually impair this balance areas • To some extent, physical maturation also manipulate objects 1 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-813-3 www.permacharts .com © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM SIGMUND FREUD • Believed that, at different • Overindulgence in fulfilling a • Freud believed that unconscious psychosexual stages of need of a particular stage is also energy to fulfill basic needs to development, various body parts a danger, as the child may be reproduce and aggress is called are particularly sensitive to erotic reluctant to progress past that the id; it works on the pleasure stimulation (erogenous zone) stage principle, which causes one to • Libido deals with these zones • Both frustration and seek totally unrestrained and and child must resolve the overindulgence may result in a immediate gratification of needs developmental conflicts at each fixation in that particular • Ego eventually develops and stage before moving forward to psychosexual stage, thus leading attempts to satisfy id realistically the next one the adult personality to be characterized by issues of that • Superego is last to develop and • Each stage has a particular need becomes the conscience that must be met or else particular stage frustration will result ORAL ANAL • Generally lasts from birth until about 12 to 18 months; controlled • Generally lasts for 1 to 2 years entirely by the id • Anus becomes the primary focus of the libido; child now derives pleasure through retention or expulsion of bowel and bladder • Mouth is the primary focus of libido; child derives pleasure by using mouth to eat and suck • Conflict exists between the id (which derives pleasure from defecation) • Children who are deprived of nursing or who stop nursing too early and the superego (which wished to please the parents by learning to may get fixated in this stage and later become pessimistic; sarcastic, control this bodily function) and/or jealous adults • Child deals with this conflict by either fighting toilet training and • Children who were overindulged by being allowed to nurse too much defecating at inappropriate times or by withholding their need an not may develop into overly optimistic; gullible adults going at all • This stage ends when children stop nursing and thus no longer receive • In the first case, if parents are overindulgent and allow child to their primary source of oral pleasure continue to defecate inappropriately, the child may get fixated in the stage and later become messy, careless, defiant, and disorganized PHALLIC (anal expulsive character) • A child who withholds his bowel movements and is indulged in this by • Generally lasts from about 3 to 7 years of age his parents may then become stingy, uptight, precise, and passive- • Genitals become the primary focus of the libido; child becomes aggressive (anal retentive character) interested in own genitals and the genitals of others • Proper toilet training is the desired resolution to this conflict and • Conflicts are different for boys (Oedipus complex) and girls (Electra signals the end of this stage of development complex) • Male child falls in love with mother and resents father because he has LATENCY the love of his mother, but child fears wrath of father; in noticing that mother has no penis; child fears that his father will take his own penis • Generally lasts from about age 7 to puberty • Sexual drive lies dormant during this stage away, thus developing castration anxiety • Resolution comes when his castration anxiety causes him to give up • Freud believed this repressed sexuality is redirected at non-sexual desire for mother and simply live vicariously through father, thus pursuits (such as school, sports, friendships) becoming more like him and using him as a role model, placing himself in an appropriate sexual role GENITAL • Female child falls in love with father and develops penis envy when • Lasts for the rest of the individual’s life noticing that she does not have one; at the same time, she blames her • Genitals become the primary focus of the libido mother for this imagined castration • The more fixations that occurred in earlier stages of life, the less able • Resolution comes when child identifies with mother, obtaining father the individual is to develop normal relationships in this stage vicariously through her; Freud believed that, since penis envy never • Genital sexuality is more concerned with mutual satisfaction between gets properly resolved, all girls remain slightly fixated in this stage of partners than the self-centered phallic sexuality development • Freud believed that the genital personality is the ideal situation; • Fixation in this stage may cause an adult personality that is reckless, narcissistic, and incapable or afraid of intimate love relationships however, it is usually not achieved to its fullest degree because most individuals have some degree of fixation in one of the earlier stages ERIK ERIKSON • Believed in eight psychosocial development stages, each with a MUSCULAR-ANAL (1 TO 3 YEAR OLD) specific conflict that must be resolved before moving on to the next stage Major Conflict: Generally lasts 1 to 2 years (as • If individual is unable to resolve conflict at any stage, then it will returAutonomy vs. long as infant is a toddler) • Toilet training is the major issue at this later in life for the individual to struggle through; each stage has a Shame and particular event associated with it Doubt stage; problems here may cause the child to develop feelings of ORAL SENSORY (BIRTH TO 1 YEAR OLD) shame if he/she is not reassured properly • Self-control and self- confidence emerge as Major Conflict: Infant is entirely dependent on others for fulfillment independence grows • Parents Trust vs. of needs • Infant develops trust in themselves as well must reinforce this behavior and Mistrust as primary caregiver by having those needs fulfilled • If needs are not met regularly, then infant may not be too overprotective or they develop sense of mistrust and become withdrawn will stifle this independence and and nervous the child will grow up lacking self- confidence 2 DEVELOPMENTA
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