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PSYD22H3 (10)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

Introduction  The different voice i describe is characterized not by gender but theme. Its association with women is an empirical observation...the association is not absolute, two modes of thought  Their convergence marks time of crisis and change  Differences arise in a social context where factors of social status and power combine with reproductive bio to shape the experience of males and females and the relations btw the sexes  The college student study explored identity and moral development in the early adult yrs by relating the view of self and thinking about morality to experiences of moral conflict and the making of life choices  The abortion decision study considered the relation btw experience and thought and the role of conflict in development...interviewed during first trimester of confirmed pregnancy  Asked how ppl defined moral problems and what experiences they construed as moral conflicts int heir lives  Rights and responsibilities study involved females and males matched for age, intelligence, education, job, class at 9 points in life cycle. Data were collected on conceptions of self and morality, experiences of moral conflict and choice, and judgements of hypothetical moral dilemma Ch.1  Nature of conceptions depends in part on the position of the observer  At a time when efforts are being made to eradicate discrimination btw the sexes in the search for social equality and justice, the differences btw the sexes are being rediscovered in the social sciences. Occurs when theories formerly considered to be sexually neutral in their scientific objectivity are found instead to reflect a consistent observational and evaluative bias  Accustomed to seeing life through mens life...behave like its the norm  Developmental theorists-Freud built theory of psychosexual development around the experiences of the male child that culminate in Oedipus complex. o Considered the difference in womens development to be responsible for what he saw as womens development failure  Tied the formation of the superego or conscience to castration anxiety  Freud considered women to be deprived by nature of the impetus for a clear cut oedipal resolution  “for women the level of what is ethically normal is different from what it is in men”..Freud concluded that women “show less sense of justice than men, that they are less ready to submit to the great exigencies of life, that they are more often influenced in their judgements by feelings of affection or hostility”  Early social environment differs and is experiences differently by male and female children, basic differences recur in personality development..therefore feminine personality comes to define itself in relation and connection to other ppl more than masculine personality does  Robert Stoller- gender indentify, the unchaning core of personality formation occurs around age 3  Given that for both sexes, the primary caretaker by age 3 is female, the interpersonal dynamics of gender identity formation are different for boys and girls o Females experience themselves as like their mother, fusing experience of attachment with the process of identity formation o Male development entails a more emphatic individuation and more defensive firming of experienced e
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