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Ch.4 and Ch.5- Lickona.docx

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David Haley

Chapter 4 (The Socialization of Moral Judgment and Behavior in Cross-Cultural Perspective)  It does appear that the substance of morality-that is, the actual rules of ethical conduct, the values and mores that govern behavior-is deeply embedded in specific cultural patterns  Anthropologists point to the structural function of values, which tends to be more stable than their content. In this view, the most sophisticated and primitive cultures attend to the same basic human needs. As a result, values are analyzed in terms of their common functional purposes, and in such terms are seen to be equivalent despite gross differences in specific content  Typology approaches have failed to specify the operational mechanisms by which broad sociocultural influences make their impact on individual socialization An integrative Model of Moral Development and Socialization  Two major emphases in modern psychological approaches to moral development have been the stage and type analyses represented by Kohlberg and Bronfenbrenner  Kohlbergs theory postulates six hierarchical developmental stages of moral reasoning which are held to be inextricably tied to cognitive development, invariant in order, and generated by the interplay of maturation and general environmental experience  Bronfenbrenners analysis describes five types of moral judgement and behavior o Self-oriented: motivated primarily by impulses of self gratification o Authority-oriented: accepts parental strictures and values as immutable and generalizes this orientation to include moral standards imposed by other adults and authority figures o Peer-oriented: adaptive conformist who goes along with peer group o Collective-oriented: commited to set of enduring group goals which take precedence over individual desires o Objectively oriented: individuals values are functionally autonomous—having arisen through social interaction but are no longer dependent, on day to day basis, upon social agents for their meaning and application  This social-psychological scheme, lacks a developmental dimension. The process through which a person/group arrives at one or another orientation is not specified. Nor is it clear whether one type emerges from another, or whether theres a typical sequence of types in development  We propose a socialization model for moral development in hierarchical stages. But our formulation views the hierarchy not as the product of universally immanent motivational forces, but as the result of an interaction btw maturing capacities and motivations of the child, on the one hand, and particular characteristics of his socio-cultural milieu, on the other.  Envison 3 developmental levels, the order of which would be the same for all persons and cultures o Level 1-hedonic orientation is organizing principle..ethic of self interest/pleasure o Level 2-allegiance and orientation to some system of social agents..moral behavior given direction (1-4 stages in Kohlberg)… authority, peer, collective in Bronfenbrenner o Level 3- highest logical and developmental pattern. Values, principles, and ideas rather than social agents are the directing forces (5-6 in Kohlberg)..objective orientation (Brofenner) Cultural factors influencing moral socialization  In our view, developmental movement from level 1 to 2 is based on and stimulated by attachment, the primary socialization of the organism to belong to and with social agents. This is the process by which the individual organism becomes an acculturated person  Studies of long term consequences of early social neglect indicate a pattern of psychopathology which may be characterized as amoral o Process of social redirection or transference- development of attachment initially directed toward parents and then to other social agents in early and middle childhood  The specific nature of the childs moral orientation within level 2, can change o The adult orientation is first in the sense that in most cultural settings –as a result of the patterns of child care implied by the universality of the family –attachment to specific adults is the initial form of social orientation o In settings in which the adults continue to exert a dominant role in the social life of the child, it may be expected that the authority orientation will endure and develop  Development of the third level-orientation to principle rather than to control by social agents-is predicated upon a social structure characterized by multiple social agents to whom the child is attached and who are pulling him in somewhat different directions  For the person operating at level 2, orientation to the social agent is paramount  The kind of social structure capable of generating a level 3 morality, is a balance of competing forces..neither monolithic nor anomic, it is best characterized as pluralistic  Pluralistic is setting in which social agents and entities represent somewhat different expectations, sanctions, and rewards for members of the society…these differences generate intergroup conflict which is largely regulated by a set of ground rules and a common commitment to goals  Monolithic setting is one in which all social agents and entities are organized around a single set of goals or principles  Anomic setting is one in which there is almost no agents and entities are either absent or represent a multiplicity of divergent forces without any normative or institutional coherence  Pluralism applies to various aspects of the socialization process, both within family (2 parent vs 1) and to relations btw the family and other socializing systems such as peer group, school, neighbourhood, community,  Bronfenbrenner found that families in which the parents both have strong and differentiated identities and family roles tend to have child who rate highest on teacher ratings for such dimensions as responsibility, autonomy, independence of judgement, interpersonal adjustment…low ratings in children from families in which one parent dominates  Another experiment showed students exposed to monolithic social setting expressed more authority oriented moral judgments than those exposed to pluralistic setting  Baumrind found that the authoritative pattern is associated with the highest levels of competence, responsibility, and other developmentally important characteristics  The accomplishment of primary socialization requires a setting in which sustained interaction btw child and parent can establish the primary attachment necessary for socially oriented motivation. This initial motivation is then expanded through social interaction with others to become a comprehensive orientation toward a specific social agent-level 2. This orientation can inturn lead to a series of multiple social allegiances which require the individual to develop an autonomous set of principles as guides for action. If the pattern of multiple competing allegiances occurs, development of an objective orientation can result. Maintenance of this level 3 morality for the society as a whole depends on the degree to which a condition of pluralism is maintained, as opposed to either a monolithic-totalitarian or anomic-chaotic context A model for studying the relationship of socio psychological pluralism to moral development Developmental Level Moral Socialization Outcome Critical Pluralistic Variables Infancy Establishment of attachment Care giving, both behavioral ex: primary socialization and normative Early childhood Expansion of primary Structure of child-other attachment relationships into interaction: progressive ever-wide
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