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gender differences.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

Gender Differences in Moral Orientation: A meta-Analysis (S. Jaffee, J. Hyde)  Gilligans critique of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning and her assertion that two modes of moral reasoning (justice and care) exist have been the subject of debate within the field of psych  Meta-analysis revealed small differences in the care orientation favoring females and small differences in the justice orientation favoring males.  These findings don’t offer strong support for the claim that the care orientation is used predominantly by women and that the justice orientation is used predominantly b men  Gilligan wanted care and justice orientation o Care-maintaining relationships, responding to the needs of others, and a responsibility not to cause hurt (females) o Justice-principles of fairness and equity such as those assessed in conventional measures of moral reasoning (males)  Gilligan argued that Kohlbergs moral judgment interview which is the most widely used measure of moral reasoning was gender biased because it was validated on an all male sample and because its scoring scheme characterized considerations of care and response as less sophisticated than considerations of justice and fairness  Early research on kohlbergian moral development reported that stage 3 was the modal stage for females and stage 4 was the modal stage for males  Stage 3 reasoning is characterized by desire to maintain relationships and to meet others expectations  Stage 4 is characterized by law and order mentality in which laws are upheld so as to maintain social order  Kohlberg derived his theory of moral development from an all male sample, he neglected to recognize a distinctively female mode of moral reasoning  Gilligan asserted that the care and justice orientations are rooted in early childhood experiences of attachment a
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