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Lecture 4

PSYD33 Lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

PSYD33 Lecture 4: Feb 1, 2012 Effective function Phineaus Gage: not a matter of intellect but social judgment that was affected - clinical function of defining – defining by example - executive function – control over resources; who gets what resources - how much resources or attention paid to particular process - executive function – aware of pressure of butt sitting on chair - change in mundane thing – attention shift very rapidly; weight assigned to signals in that region - determine which behaviors occur in which individuals; sensory and motor systems are trivial - i.e. if voice on overhead announces fire in building; whether voice is female or male is irrelevant- only pay attention to message - essence of behavioral choice not dependent on sensorimotor system - many different ways perception of situation can occur; many different motor patterns can get desired outcome - real center of determining individual differences –cognitive, motivational and emotional processes  each have different primary paths - located anatomically in different parts of frontal lobe; due to connectivity to other parts of brain (i.e. motivation – sadness, hunger, happy, etc.) - enhancement of processing in network most salient at moment - other processing streams are inhibited - consciousness: reading most dominant signal(s) ongoing at any point at time; others are muted and don’t make it into consciousness - decision making in last step in executive function process - decision will go with dominant signal EF Not Unitary Process - IQ problem; IQ doesn’t predict success in life - injuries in frontal lobe doesn’t not always impact IQ – i.e. in Phineas Gage - dorsolateral damage – impaired on WCST; perseveration  whatever was learned previously repeated over and over again, difficult to learn new pattern - EF = “fluid intelligence” - some claim fluid intelligence – not looked beyond just cognitive sphere Three EF Tasks: - threat to cognitive EF = ADHD  only has brief time to focus on particular problem and attention shifts because don’t have inhibitory resources to block everything else out - some people process things more quickly than others - cognitive EF = providing enough resources, inhibiting others to solve problem efficiently - motivational EF = for motivationally appealing/ immediate gratification - motivational EF inhibit so cognitive system can come into play to figure out if it is a good thing to do long term - i.e. over-eating: cognitively determine when to stop eating not because full (for obese – not full) but because excess calories - only focus on what’s going to feel good now but would be harmful for future (long term consequence) - if can’t stop focus on motivational gratification = make poor decisions - emotional state different; no particular survival value - emotions can be useful but when not too extreme – can be dysfunctional; when can’t think - to think, need moderate amount of arousal Different Systems: Different Executives - cognition = one- to one correspondence btw two things - precise relationship btw constructs or objects - emotion = may lead to action but does not necessarily compel action - short attention span + fast processing = process all 3 concepts and make decision -- sound, efficient decision but somewhat limited - long attention span + fast processing = process all 3 concepts really quickly; quick to process and have left over time to think about further secondary concepts, go beyond what is necessary; creative - short attention span + slow processing = slow to make decision, could not consider all of the other salient aspects of decision before attention directed somewhere else, make impulsive decisions - long attention span + slow processing = still don’t make optimal decision, but somewhat better due to elongated attention span so they can think more - Far left = immediate gratification - systems at top/ green arrows = in concert with each other bias decision to approach immediate gratification - dopamine (2 types): - D1 receptor – maintains attention on rewarding object - D2 filters out alternative; works against giving up to cognition - Testosterone: energizes to approach reinforcement; provides energy – involved in anger, aggression, sex, etc. - Testosterone makes people more socially dominant; people higher up in social hierarchy have higher levels of testosterone - Not fixed at birth; testosterone
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