Class Notes (838,936)
Canada (511,158)
PPGC67H3 (24)
Lecture 2

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Public Policy
Scott Aquanno

Week 2 Organizational overview 1. Parliament  bicameral legislature with an elected lower house and an appointed upper house  MPs do not reflect the population in terms of ethnic composition education, class or gender  parliament is organized on the basis of party discipline o have to follow party doctrines or party lines o required to vote in line with the hierarchy of power (the party you are a part of) o limited to shaping policy o Bureaucracy supports policies o Conservatives received the majority of the seats in parliament o once they receive the majority they are able to do anything they want  Responsible government- principle of parliamentary accountability; basic principle of the Canadian Westminster system  Supremacy of Parliament (1982)- rules and laws passed by parliament with largely beyond the review of any other organ of government (charter greatly enhanced the courts' power of judicial review). o Key aspect of Westminster system o Parliaments laws, or rules were final o Federalist responsibilities o division of powers between province and federal governments o only problem is if either side over stepped there jurisdiction o a process of judicial review based on the over stepping of boundaries o after 1982 the increase of judicial review occurred through the charter of rights  Charter of Rights o Protects your rights o Cannot be changed exists on top of parliament o All laws in Canada have to abide by the charter o In theory you cannot pass a law that restricts one of these rights o Allows vague principles that guide parliament o leeway on interpreting these policies o Parliament is held more directly account to a more elected then appointed judiciary o protects minority interests .  Parliament and public administration o parliament has a role in legitimizing the function and operation of the bureaucracy and is technically involved in the financing and making of policy as well as the establishment/transformation of new Main role of parliament has become to examine and scrutinize the public sector o committees o independent watchdog agencies- assist with the task of holding ministers and public servants accountable o examining the estimates o office of the auditor general of Canada Executive o Center of the cabinet-parliamentary or Westminster system. The cabinet system generally functions the same at the federal and provincial level o includes the cabinet, cabinet o Prime Minister o exercise control and authority over cabinet through a host of special power. o makes the cabinet o makes policy o party leader o power appointer o institutional and organizational authority o chief diplomat o limited restraints= media, opposition parties, constitution party, public opinion, fiscal constraints, provinces international o Cabinet o 2 important conventions  1. Individual ministerial responsibility-  Responsible or accountable to the house for the proper conduct of their department  2. Collective ministerial responsibility  responsibility to GG (loss of confidence)  collective solidarity and secrecy  responsibility to the house (loss of confidence). o Historical evolution of cabinet system o traditional (WWI) prior to the administrative state and executive federalism. Cabinet mediated federal-provincial relations and dispensed patronage. o departmental- ministers given a significant degree of decision making autonomy; restricted collegiality; limited centralization o institutionalization; shared knowledge and collegial decision making; organized through government-wide priorities- response to lack of cabinet-level coordination. # decisions made in isolation become problematic; further need to control the bureaucracy in light of the expansion of the welfare state o Prime Minister Centred - further concentration of power at the centre; stealth politics; bifurcation of decision making between priority and non-priority programs (response to lack of policy coherence). Deeping concentration of power to the Prime Minister's office. Central agencies o PMO- Partisan and administrative support to the PM o PCO- provides logistical support to the cabinet and coordinates overall government policy; non- partisan advice -clerk of the privy council- highest ranking public servant central advisor to the PM o Department of Finance- financial information, policy o Treasury Board Secretariat- government department responsible for controlling and monitoring the expenditure of funds and developing departmental budgets (estimates). Bureaucracy- Administers, design and evaluate policy o Plays a central role in the policy process o Public sector bureaucracies are organized hierarchically with the minister and deputy minister sitting on the top of the pyramid. The highest non-appointed member of a ministry is the ADM. o Departments regularly meet with and take direction from the Treasury Board Secretariat and the Privy Council Office o Crown Corporations are important components of the bureaucratic machinery in Canada but are organized more along private sector principles with a president and or CEO. They are not subject to daily political or financial directions o Increased involvement within ministries. o Constitution: the system of accountability in Canada is determined in large parts by the constitution, both its written and unwritten parts. There are two major constitutional stipulations regarding public administration o 1. The Canadian constitution ensures bureaucratic accountability through collective o 2. Constitutional conventions promote a neutral professional, permanent public service operated on the principle of merit. Helps maintain accountability o under this framework, public servants provide independent, top level advice and support but remain publically anonymous Weber- ideal type of rational-legal public administration o Bureaucracies are the most efficient and effective form of organization- dramatic improvement on 19th century patronage o The model of bureaucratic or
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