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POLC67 JAN 16th.docx

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Public Policy
Josh Gordon

POLC67 JAN 16 th Understanding the evolution of public policy Public policy is an explanatory ambition- we want to ex;plain policy, policy variation- why is there a policy so policy theory is to attempt to explain diff types of theories so its an explanatory thing- the WHY question? Dependent variable(y=x+2)-main diff is that y is what we are trying to explain which is the dep variable eg healthcare costs- something we wanna explain that why do some countries wanna spend more on health care then others so theres variation in time and across countires. Eg income taxes – Yi, s=alpha+b1 socialist ideas+ b2 social expenditure+b3 levels of debt+b4 party in power I, s- time, space Overdetermination- we are using ind variables to explain dep variable which is eg we have a tax rate of 46% in Canada due to above mentioned variable. So to see which one of these variable is a big part of explanation, then we keep other variable constant and test it. When you have so many ind variables, we need to have a sense of which one of these is imp otherwise we would have overddetermination of results therefore comparison over time and space is done What kind of theories are good? Falsifiable-you cant do ad hoc in such theories; distinct hypothesis- framed in the idea that there is a hypothesis that we are gonna look at and a clear proof that we can use it to disapprove eg ndp when in power has higher tax rates then when conservatives and then we see it overtime and if we see no change so we see it’s a falsifiable theory. Eg social expenditure is falsiable on income taxes as govt produces taxes rates parcimeneous theory cuts to the core of what matters SIMEON READING FOR MIDTERM Kingdons’s 3 streams model- policy + provlems+politics When these policies are coupled, you create a policy window and then you can get policy change so the idea is that all these 3 have to come together. So what can we predict in adv frm the above 3 that if ndp came into power next election,there would be a rise in income taxes?so we could say there is a strong likelihood so this is a theoristic theory and not a testifiable. So its useful to understand but its not a policy theory. Funnel model of causality- 1) Socio economic environment(functional explanation) eg inequality like income disparities, unemployment, gdp per capita, health/education levels- so we can go out and measure these diff things 2) So socioeconomic things affect and imact out political actors eg politicians who are part of political parties(partisan based explanation) and interest groups(interest/organizational) based explanation)- and ideologies and public opinion( ideational explanations) Called functionalist bcz idea is that certain needs will arise in poptn and those need would create a solution 3) Anoter category of explanations in INSTITUTIONs- main idea is that institutions are part of the gaem so ideologies, public opinion, political parties and interest groups all fall into this eg parliament, beureaucracy- inst will refract these mentioned various pressures. If thesere were no refraction you could go straight to POLICY OUTLETS so inst view is that inst matter bcz of refraction
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