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Key Terms for Sikhism Buddhism and Jainism Lectures.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Henry Shiu

Key Terms for the Lecture on Sikhism: Sufism Islamic mystical tradition Derived much early inspiration form Hinduism th Established in Punjab by 11 century 3 Sufi orders from Iraq and Persia moved into northern India Recognize important role of spiritual master Sant tradition Meaning = holy ascetic, truth, saint 3 elements contributed to rise of Sant Bhakti/devotional practice Tantric yoga sufism Many influential Sant poets; kabir Ascetic poets who believed divinity to exists beyond all forms of description Sant poets Namdev, Ravidas, Kabir Nanak Founder of Sikh tradition, first teacher Created institution of the Guru, became central authority in community life Asserted primacy of message over messenger Composed more than 900 hymns, complied as Adi Granth Experienced God directly; one God God should be experienced rather than talked about Adi Granth Composed more than 9000 hymns put into this book 5 Guru Arjan created sacred book Original collection Primary scripture Divided into 3 sections: prayers, ragas, epilogue Sat Guru True teacher Om kara Divine One Mardana Nanak’s friend, visited holy sites throughout Northern India Played musical accompaniment Raised in Hindu family Sikh Disciples Angad Designated disciple Angad = own limb 1504-1552 Refined Gurumukhi script in which Guru’s hymns were recorded Amardas rd 3 Guru Est. 2 new festivals (Diwali and Baisakhi) Introduced 22 majis (seats of authority) Prepared pothis (volumes), initial collection of compositions of first 3 Gurus Abolished wearing of veil but practice of sati Permitted women to remarry Reforms instituted regarding women significant Ramdas 4 Guru Arjan 5 Guru Inherited vibrant religious community Built Golden Temple Complied Adi Granth Son of Ramdas First martyrdom Decisive factor in crystallization of Sikh Panth Hargobind th 6 Guru Son of Arjan Adopted practice of wearing a sword Took up arms to defend against Mughal hospitality Harrai 7 guru Harkishan th 8 guru Tegh Bahadur 9 guru Encouraged followers to be fearless Direct challenge to emperor Refused to embrace Islam and executed 2ndmartyrdom Gobind Rai (Gobind Singh) 10 guru Inaugurated special military order for men called KHALSA Closed Sikh canon Brought end of human Gurus Initiated nucleus of new order the “Cherished Five” Decisive factor in crystallization of Sikh Panth Khalsa Open to all castes All males took name singh Pure Order of loyal Sikhs bound by a common identify and disciple 5 practices adopted to promote strength and self-identity Avoid all intoxicants Akbar Found Sikhism a tolerant monotheistic practice Successors felt distrustful about Sikh’s growth and political influences kes uncut hair and beard kangha hair comb kachh short trousers kirpan sword kara bracelet of steel gurdwara daily prayer centers, charitable kitchens, social meeting places guru’s door place of worship requires people sit side by side in status free rows Key Terms for the lecture on Jainism: Karmamarga Way of works Ahimsa • Highest possible value is non-violence • Express essence of tradition in 3 words (ahmisa paramo dharma) = (non-violence is supreme path) • Commitment to non-violence is commitment to radical non-interference • Equate non-violence with renunciation bc total cessation of activity that can avoid harming others and one-self • Non-harm • One of 5 Mahavrata vows accepted by everyone who takes up life of Jaina ascetic • Forbids all involvement with world and ensures no action is taken spontaneously • Cause no harm to one sensed beings, plants, insects, animals, humans shramanas • Strivers • Abandoned family and strict orthopraxy (rules of ritual proper behavior) • Hereditary priesthood, sacrifices, rituals disregarded • Considered per-occupation with cosmic and social order flawed • Held views similar for need for salvation from cosmos • Insight into escaping its confines and attain moksha/nirvana • Jainism part of world renouncing movement that gave rise to Buddhism karma (in the context of Jainism) • Believe karma to be material in nature • Intention is important to determine the quality of karma • Transformative path to attain moksha laid out by “tirthankkaras” • God cant help others toward freedom • Must attain liberation oneself • Samvara: impedes accumulation of karma (detachment and mindfulness) • Nirjara: burn off old karma (fasting, meditation) • Any engagement with world generates more karma • Supporting renouncers earns them good karma (punya) • Negative or aggressive thoughts accrue bad karma (paap) Tirthankaras • Transformative path to attain moksha laid out by “tirthankkaras” • “ford finders” transcended ocean of samsara and found moksha from matter • 24, began with Rsabha, become monk th • 19 was women moksa • God cant help others toward freedom • One must attain liberation oneself • State of complete detachment from world • State which communication with those still in cycle of samsara is impossible Rsabha • Was first tirthankara out of 24 Mahavira • Teachings were committed to memory by closet disciples (ganadharas) • Most recent Jina who taught path to eternal happiness • Referred to as jina after he attained enlightenment • Preceded by Parsva • At 30, renounced worldly pleasures and began life of austerity • Asked disciples to observe 4 vows: o NOT TO (steal, lie, own property, take life) Jina • Victors or conquerors, • 24 asectic prophets • who taught path to eternal happiness • Mahavira most recent • Jina is highest expression of Jaina ideal and focus of Jaina devotional apparatus • Restraint, self-discipline and commitment not to harm are starting points • Also called Tirthankkara • Conquered world of suffering and desire Parsva • Mahavira precede by Parvsa Svatambaras • White clad • Permitted women to join • Female body not insurmountable obstacle, permit women full initiation • All beings are subject to bodily demands; eats, sleeps, communicates regularly • Northerners, abandoned principle of nudity began wearing white robe Digambaras • Sky clad • Insistence on nudity meant women were disqual
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