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World Religion (1).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

World Religion Chapter One About Religion StonehengeMassive standing stonesHorseshoe pattern opening towards sun and capped with lintelsAlter for sacrificesBetween 35004000 years ago Three WorldsSky earth and underworldUpper most level sky home of deities Apparent movement of the sun stars and planets across the skyLed early humans to believe that the heavenly bodies were living entities animated by their own individual spiritsgods and goddessesIn heavens Sky Father Creator and King of HeavenUnder the earth lived the spirits of serpents or reptilian monstersevilBetween the sky and the underworld lay earthwhere humans live Sacred placesMountains and hill topsclosest to sky Humans feel unusual feelings of energy and powerMiddle East had ritual centers Offering food drink praise and prayer Animal SpiritKilling animals with respectPower objectsbulls bears lions and eaglesPeople have attributed magical properties to objectsEx Bear claws or eagle feather wearing them as amulets or hanging them in the doorways Death and BurialCorpse head facing eastrebirth in another realmGrave goodshelp dead in afterlifeThe dead spirit guiding the livingEx Japanese Obon Mexican Day of the Dead and etc Why are Humans Religious Grow out of human experiencesHope for a good afterlifeUncertainty of surrounding natural events to the sense of control over natureReligion emerges through the experiences of good and bad powers that are sensed in dreams sacred places and in certain humans and animalsHas emotional dimensions and intellectual dimensionsIt is an ancient aspect of human experience that it has become part of human natureTen Waves of ReligionSome religious ideas may actually have been carried from their places of origin to other culturesOthers may have developed more or less independently in response to changing environmentalor social or economicconditionsMajor waves have introduced new religious concepts and practices to different human culturesWave 1 Shamanism Topics Description Medicine manShaman came from Asian cultureA person who acts as an intermediary between humans and the spirit worldHunting RitualsDance ritual for huntingWhy Appease the spirits of hunted species and successful huntRituals reflect humans concern over future food supply Coping with Unfriendly SpiritsUnfriendly spirits in forms of monsters or mythical beasts were particularly concerted with those who ventured into their territory as hunters or gatherersStrategies Usually based on what works with humansPeople suffered from diseases and pain The ShamanCalled to the role by hisher psychic abilities Vision or near death experienceGo through vision questconfront terrifying apparitionsEnter trance state chanting or drummingSpirits serve ShamansIt can over take body tooWave 2 Connecting to the Cosmos Topics Description Discerning the Cosmic CyclesPriests track down seasons and determine best time for plantingTrack movements of sunNeolithic era paid attention to phases of the moon and constellations Astrologycycle of seasons HilltopsFavoured high placesEx Pyramids and stupasScholars refer to this kind of symbolic link between earth and sky as an axis mundi world axisAnimals and GodsNeolithic era certain animals with specific deitiesA woman flanked with 2 felinesEgyptians had a cat goddessBastHindu goddess Durga The Bull GodZeusform of white bullMinotaur Greek temples often display bull horns near their altersNandisacred mount for ShivaWave 3 Temple Religion Topics Description Shaping traditions Judaism Chinese religion and Hinduism IndoEuropean PriestsMay have originated from Black Sea
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