Religions – Western Traditions: CHRISTIANITY
Lecture 05, 06 and 07
Jesus in the Gospel
The very beginning of the Christianity took place in Judaism
Israel is part of the Roman Empire
Anti-Roman sentiment in the region, especially after the destruction of the second temple
The Apocalyptic hope is really strong because Christianity evolves from the apocalypse from
Apocalypse is the absolute final thing, unveiling (revelation); idea of situation is so bad need
End time of apocalypse, is the beginning of new time
Apocalypse: Desperate hope that someone is going to save us from the bad times
Idea of Apocalyptic: the end is going happen soon because there is no time; which people must
act according and seek forgiveness ASAP
Scholars and devotes of Christianity observe the life Jesus very differently
Sources to understand Jesus: The GOSPELS
Why are there are Four Gospels?
o There are four different versions of Jesus
o There are four versions because there is no more of gospel being the dominant source
o Jesus’s disciples are the founders of the Gospels or their descendants; earliest
communities that were surrounded by these people
Mosaic: pieces of glass are fused together; pieces that have connection between them
Mosaic of Jesus: each of the interpretation bleed into each other; all the interpretations participate
Notion of God’s love, especially Jesus cruxification
Christianity based on Two Commandments:
1. Love for God
2. Love for other Human Beings (Love for One’s Neighbours)
Notion of Messiah
Messiah is not spiritual ruler to right wrongs, Messiah is not one localized savior but worldwide
savior; a spiritual kingdom
Divine Love and Mercy that triggers God to represent him/herself to the world
Key Theoretical Component of Judaism and How Islam Grows After: Jesus retains his humanity
but is a divine being
Jesus is equally divine being and human; it is a paradox
Born and grew up as a Jew, thus Jesus participates in Judaism
However Jesus was a radical thinker Missionary Religion: it would be mean, a message that has to broadcast
o Message in the Three Traditions: spreading the message and seeing the numbers grow
o Number=Power: more and more people doing God’s will; more support for your
If it keeps growing in number then it becomes TRUE
However Judaism is not trying to gain power through conversions, because it is
not a Missionary Religion
The Story of Pentecost: Jesus has been cruxified and disciples have no idea what to do, tongues of fire
electrocute the disciples from sprit of God; now disciples can speak many language thus spread the
The Hebrew Bible
Tower of Babel Story: Group of people are going to build thus tower, they are building this tower that is
going to reach the heaven; thus shows human ignorance thus God eliminates the communication among
Paul: characterized as the founder of Christianity; Paul and the letters he wrote were so pivotal of
founding the Church; and assured consistency of practice among the Christianity communities
Suggesting Christianity can be religion for gentile or Jews, you did not have to be Jewish to
Many people were Greeks who joined Christianity, therefore the language became Greek;
makes it more accessible
Christianity emerge as non Jewish religion among gentile population
Paul stress less of what Jesus did daily and tried to focus more on the nature of Jesus such as
sacfrice of Jesus for the sinners
As humans we are broken creatures whom sin, Paul says that’s how we are but it is not a bad
thing, God accepts us the way we are
Jesus focused less on law and more about “getting my inner state in the right relationship with
Moses perceives the law and follow the commandments; Christianity says follow the
commandments but also follow Jesus
Paul: “My faith in Jesus as a redeemer”
Jesus is a Cosmic Messiah because he is a redeemer
Sin is a major problem that calls for a solution
The Garden of Eden Story: In Christianity the Adam and Eve story becomes more symbolic as in we all
have inherited the sin from Adam and Eve Therefore we need something to remove it
Testament: Covenant or contract; Jesus is a new contract
Jews don’t claim the old testament as OLD
Hebrew Bible says that is a revelation by Moses
Gospel writers are inspired by the Divine and Jesus is the revelation; expressed through a person
but through ideas and beliefs
Christianity develop, has various ideas towards the testament
The Scripture is infoulable; status of divinely inspired, it cannot have any errors
Literalism: the words in this document are literally true meaning the context from this book is factually
true. Thus, Christians believe the New Testament tells the true history.
SCHOLARS FOCUS: The Gospels is document collected by the community; learn about the community at
that time rather than focusing about whether God actually wrote/said these things in the Bible
The Gospels: authors of the Bible by not eye witnesses; thus based on oral tradition
Jesus – The Disciples – Friends and Family of Disciple – Community
Evangelical: from Greek word; “Good News”
During the second century they began to organize the real books from Matthew, Mark, Luke and
Peter: in Gospel of Peter, it claimed Jesus did not die on the crucifix thus did not make the cut
The New Testament is written in Greek, which made the religion more accessible to the gentile
The first three gospels are synoptic, the three gospels have strong similarities in telling the story
In Mark: refers to Jesus as savior of gentiles
In Matthew: refers to Jesus as a Messiah
In Luke: the role Jesus for not only Jews but gentiles and talks about the poor
John is not one of the synoptic, in the synoptics talks about highlights of life of Jesus and what
In John: the word is flesh, Jesus is more abstract
The Sayings of Gospel - Q Document:
The synoptic gospels have so much in common with each other, the literature is similar
The information comes from oral tradition
Mark is the earliest Gospel and Matthew and Luke are copies of Mark
Matthew and Luke share different kind of relationship, the material comes from the source
which is Q
The idea of Q is a combination of the three gospels
Gospel Literary Relations Matthew was written after Mark and Luke was written after Matthew. However, Luke did not copy from
Matthew. Matthew and Luke have an “indirect” literary relationship.
One of the books has been written while that author had the other book in his hand as reference.
1. Many text words are the same in both books.
2. Agree in the same order. Matthew and Mark have same chronological order such as the order of
names. In oral tradition, it does not allow the exact same order.
Luke and Matthew: Levi is mentioned in both gospels thus suggesting Luke copied Mark
Material from Matthew and Luke is Q.
We Say Mark is Written First:
The important stories not in Mark explain Mark did not copy from Matthew and Luke.
In all three gospels you can see Matthew and Luke’s literature is more superior from Mark.
Matthew and Luke did NOT copy from one another: because Matthew changes Simon name to Peter but
Luke never mentions Peter thus Luke did not copy Matthew
Q Source Document
It is called Q because German word for source is “Quelle” and over time it has been shortened
Q is the story or words that Matthew and Luke have but Mark doesn’t.
What is Q?
It is a saying Gospel like Gospel of Thomas. Saying Gospels has just all Jesus saying and little
Q is RURAL GALILEN JEWISH DOCUMENT. Q reflects before the Jesus movement and the Q
people regarded Jesus as a teacher not saviour.
Gospel: can translate to “good news”
The close people of Jesus go and share the wisdom of Jesus to their communities whom created
The author name of Gospels has been attached to the literature.
Gospel of Peter did make the final cut because it claimed Jesus returned to heaven before
crucifixication. Therefore, the Bishop cut it from the Gospels and banned it for others reading it.
1. The Gospel of Mark (first according to Scholars)
Paul’s letters were first written.
In 65 AC to 70 AC, symbolized by winged Lion. Winged Lion because of setting of the Gospel,
(dessert and heaven). This gospel is mentioned in 131 AC and scholars believe Mark is disciple of Peter.