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David Perley

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Lecture 7 (1) MAGISTERIAL REFORMATION “The press is mightier than the pen” LUTHER (1483-1546) DON’T JUST READ TEXTBOOK - Trigger for what happens - Once you have the protestant reformation beginning of new way of orienting christianity and triggers a whole bunch of denominations and groups - If you imagine thrly Christianity = a funnel that gets down into a consisttht doctarine (Nicene creed by the 4 Century) then you get the east and the west split (11 cent) - From the 11 century = - West  latin church has been one semi-unified monolithic consistent church - Christian is a “Free lord of all subject to none nobody” and “dutiful servant to all subject to all” sounds like a contradiction - and on the other hand subject to everyone - first focuses on individuality and second quote focuses on community (selflessness) FREEDOM IN DEVOTION - Autonomous to be an individual but also to become a community - Talking freedom from certain things (freedom from the catholic church) but being subject to all still being subject to the Christian community but not the institutionalized bureaucratic one - Free then to devote myself to god and no one else has ultimate control over me = general idea - Sounds like he’s celebrating autonomy - Individual relationship with god MEDIATION - This is what Luther is reacting to - He sees it as an Obstacle: something stands between two things (between god and me) - Positive sense – that thing in between helps you get to god - But luther sees this as blocking him from the divine (obstacle) - Tradition develops: Worship of saints, veneration of saints, pilmigrages, monestaries, nunneries - Everything gets more complicated - And church is getting really rich (through indulgences) - Sale of indulgences: • Wealthy people with positions of power and money donating money to the church and the church transforms the money into spiritual merit (secure salvation for the ancestors for these people) • Have a dead relative and helps secure a place in heaven for them - He rejects the power and authority of pope, rejects ritualistic ideas - Wants there to be far less mediation - He triggers reform but at one point he has to go back to being conservative again - Reason informed by morals and scripture two key things that you need to be a Christian (he denies authority of the priest) - There are also other people in the catholic church feeling this way too 1 Lecture 7 - Luther stands out because the conflict gets so bad that he cuts himself off from the church - If he’s removing obstacles from our relationship with god – he’s saying it’s a more direct personal encounter with god - He closes monesteries he sees it as an old fashioned decadent enterprise (standing in the way) writing and doing all this stuff that people on the streets don’t see - Also closes nunnaries SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL CONTEXT - play into his success of his reformation - Feudalism default economic structure – all about land ownership (lord’s land gets it all the servants didn’t make a lot of money) – but sort of forced - Shift from feudalism and agricultural class to capitalism and manufacturing class - How? You have the development of the manufacturing class (get other people to make things) – manual labour o The people running these factories start generating money in a new way o The shift in economic power is tied in with shift in religious power o The magisteries (merchant class) who supported Luther in his reforms are these people - Political context o The holy roman empire in the 16 Century is undergoing decentralization (centre was Rome)  they stop paying taxes; Roman empire can’t control things anymore o Luther’s reform and breakaway from empire (Merchant class hangs on to the money and Luther’s church hangs on to their money as well) o Growth of vernacular language: Luther shifts Christianity away from being stuck in Latin (illiterate person (peasant class) goes and everything is in Latin – so no understanding) o Wants to translate it a form of the language that a lot of people will understand o Literacy rates are radically high ? o One person needs to read it out loud and people will still get i
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