Terms Definitions Additional Notes
Bar Mitzvah/ Bat Mitzvah The coming of age ceremonies for
Jewish teenagers, occurs during
their thirteenth birthday. They are
required to read two selections
from the Hebrew Bible: Pentateuch
Pentateuch The five books of Moses, which Relate to the theme of
make up the first section of the Language: oral and written texts
Hebrew Bible. The five books are:
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers
Sabbath The Jewish day of rest, it is the
Jewish day for prayer and public
assembly in the Synagogue. The
Bar Mitzvah takes place during the
Berith The Hebrew term for the Covenant. Connects to the theme of
The covenant meaning, contract, Reward and Punishment
specifically the covenant formed i.e. theme of Obedience, where
with God and the Abraham, then God tests Abraham's faith.
Jacob and Moses and the People of The rewards for his faith are:
Israel. offspring and a homeland, the
The Covenant is designed to assurance of a long life and
instruct the people of God on how peaceful death.
to behave. Where God promises
Abraham's descendants will have
the land of Canaan.
Septuagint (from the Latin for The story of seventy scholars, who Connect to the theme of
Seventy) worked independently, by a miracle language.
produced identical drafts of the
translation of the Hebrew Bible into
The Greek bible brought the
community a new set of cultural
The original three sections of the
Hebrew bible was taken and
rearranged into four genres: Law,
History, Poetry and Prophecy.
Eschatology From the Greek for "study of the Connect to the theme of
end" Reward and punishment i.e. A genre of Jewish literature that remaining true to the Torah,
emerged in the later prophetic one will be granted everlasting
books and flourished in the life as oppose to who persecute
Hellenistic era them are punished.
Midrash Meaning interpretation or Connected to the concept of
commentary. The Midrash is the language, oral, and
commentary on the scriptures. interpretation.
Mishnah A major works brought by the Connected to the theme of
Rabbinic movement, a form of an Language, oral and written
oral tradition, written down and texts.
codified. The Mishnah is one part of
Seder The family meal that takes place
during the Passover celebration.
Tefillin Traditional prayer garbs worn by
men on weekdays; small black
leather boxes, also called
phylacteries, containing words of
scripture, tied to the forehead and
forearm by leather thongs.
Excommunication Formal expulsion from the The significance is that Marcion,
Church whom took Paul's ideas and
contrasts the Old Testament and
the New. He establishes this
belief that the Demiurge is a
stern and fearsome, capricious
and despotic and cruel.
Indulgences Releases from specified amounts Sale of indulgences. Getting out
of time in purgatory, a realm to of purgatory. Corruption of the
which in Catholic doctrine the Catholic Church. Emergence of
soul proceeds after death for an Martin Luther and
unspecified period of Protestantism. Radical
preparation to enter heaven. reformation.
Glossolalia Speaking in strange tongues,
which is a principal feature of
Transubstantiation The Catholic doctrine that the
bread and wine of the Eucharist
are at the moment of
consecration in the service
miraculously transformed into
the body and blood of Christ. Eucharist The sacrament in which
believers consume consecrated
bread and wine in
commemoration of the Last
Supper as the re-enactment of
Nicene Creed Nicene Creed- An ancient Nicene Creed is more specific
doctrinal formulation longer and about the two texts; we see
more explicit than the Apostles’ that the Nicene Creed is more
Creed and still in the use through
regular recitation in the catholic specific about the Holy Spirit
and more inclined to mention