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Lecture 05.docx

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David Perley

Lecture 05 AGENDA FOR February 7 JESUS IN THE GOSPELS MOSAIC LOVE AND THE TWO COMMANDMENTS EARLY CHRISTIAN BELIEF AND HISTORY PAUL THE STRUCTURE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT GOSPELS - Jesus and mosaic - Some scholars are radical enough to call Paul the founder of Christianity JESUS IN THE GOSPELS MOSAIC: COMPOSITE PORTRAIT OF JESUS THE TWO COMMANDMENTS LOVE FOR GOD LOVE FOR ONES NEIGHBOUR SPIRITUAL VS. POLITICAL KINGDOM st - 1 century the destruction of the second temple is very a chromatic and dramatic moment in Jewish history. Bear in mind that by the time of Jesus 1 century, Israel is part of the Roman Empire. Also because of the chronic occupation in the region by this time there is a lot of anti- roman sentiment, which just means people protesting and keeping occupied. This leads to dreams and hopes of some sort of messianic figure that is going to come in and fix things. Lets bear in mind that in the Judaic context that is the idea of a spiritual, political ruler were not yet at the Christian reinterpretation of messiah as the cosmic savior of sin. - So connected with this hope for a messiah, this sort of bad situation of being occupied is precisely the tradition of Apocalyticism. This is the tradition of people giving the rest of the community that God is angry with us, we have done something wrong and if we dont figure things out, we are going to get punished severely. - The Apocalyticism is usually some radical change where the unjust are punished and the righteous are rewarded. So its not the full on cataclysmic, absolute annihilation of the world. Well it is a radical moment of conflict that leads to something else after. So this all kind of takes place in kind of our world. - Eschatology is the beliefs about afterlife - ology means the study of - end times that is usually, especially in Islam and Christianity - Its the end time where the dead are resurrected, they are judged by God and it is decided on whether they go to heaven or hell. - Concern about the after life - Apocalyticism is a different thing - Apocalyticism its not the end in terms of the end of our live here. Its the end of the stage of the ways we have been doing things on this planet and percolates the start of something else. - Early Christianity is often characterized as an Apocalyticism movement but it also has Eschatological components. **Dont confuse the terms - Jews at the time are hoping for some kind of kingly, military leader to rise up and get rid of the Romans and allow them to reclaim the land of Israel. - Whats interesting is that this idea of the messiah returning and correcting the wrongs of the world; there is hints of it in the Hebrew bible, so some of the later prophets talk about visions they have of messiahs coming. So when certain figures appear and are very politically active its no surprise that some of that community identify these people as potential messiahs. - So were not going to find one singular portrayal of Jesus in the Christian tradition at all even within the Holy book itself. The four gospels sort of present four angles on the story. Sometimes its the same story but sometimes they have additions or differences. - Jesus: His life if very short and our knowledge of who he is come to us from the most part through the Gospels. Dont want to think of the Gospels as the historical record of events that happened. - Scholars agree that it is pretty well believed that Jesus was born in 4 BCE, which differs from tradition which believes he was born around zero. There is consensus that he lives to about 30/33. There is evidence outside of Christian tradition that there was a guy named Jesus who was arrested and crucified. There is some historical collaboration that the person (Jesus) was around, but the stories that he actually did has only really come to us through the Gospels. - Lets think of the gospels as paintings and each painting sort of gives us a perspective or angle on who this person was. - Metaphor: Mosaic (tiles) each tile is sort of a different interpretation or perspective on who Jesus was. So as historians we collect the tiles and try to put together some sort of composite picture of who he was. - Usually Mosaics can use tiles but also sometimes they use stain glass. - Stain glass (Mosaic): pieces put framed together, kind of glued together. The glue that glues them together is lead like solder. You melt is and kind of stick the pieces and when it dries it kind of seals it altogether. It does sort of presume that there is some sort of glue that keeps all the pieces or all the different pictures of Jesus together. Some over arching idea or framework to put all the pieces in. Radically move away from this idea. We might just maybe think that the glue is the central notion of Christianity, someorganizing concept but we dont really think we need that. Its more profound to think of the mosaic in a different way and in this context; (William James) he wanted to say image the world as a mosaic and now we have to image that this lines there are no longer solder lines but James pictured the mosaic as sort of glass pieces fused together. So instead of having the solder lead glue them together you are just melting them together so you know the red piece of glass is fused with the blue piece. So you get this more interconnected metaphor. So there is this no overarching glue, the glue that holds the whole picture together is just the pieces themselves. The pieces by connecting in with each other create the glue. - So applying the metaphor to Jesus ;( Gospels, Historians, etc) There is no singular glue that kind of binds all these together, its the ideas and how they connect together that gives us the picture. Also another thing is this idea that these things can be clearly separate off with borders. Pieces of glasses melted together are reminding us that it isnt just Mathew or Mark in isolation; you can only really understand who Jesus was by looking at the whole picture. - Scholars cannot really focus on who Jesus was, but can focus on what early Christians thought about him. So really scholars analyzing the Gospels, its really almost like historical sociology. They are really trying to recapture what was going on at the time. There is less of a focus on trying to recapture Jesus a
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