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David Perley

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AGENDA FOR FEBRUARY 28 RLAG02 LEC06 GOSPELS IN FOCUS (CONTINUED) - Question about gospels on Final Exam (b/c not really emphasized prior to quiz (only briefly discussed)) >- Tip: map out 4 gospels - key concerns, how do they (to each other): - connect - relate - fit in in terms of chronological order (ie. which came early, later) >- themes behind Gospels? GOSPELS IN FOCUS - Mark, Matthew, Luke, John - chronological order - Bible order: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John synoptic gospels - Mark, Matthew, Luke John - John - contrasts greatly w/ other 3 >- discusses Jesus as logos, son of God ^ he is one who pinpoints this Gospels - less/more emphasis on Jesus's role on who he is saviour for (dep. on which gospel it is) >- Is he for Gentiles, or is he messiah for Israel etc. - Matthew - supreme teacher - Mark - saviour of Gentiles & Jews - why supreme teacher of Torah in Matthew relevant? Matthew - Jesus's portrayal - written for Jewish audience - Supreme teacher of Torah - from Jewish context, he is preaching appropriately and coming with right info (as if continuation of Judaism) - celebrated as "supreme teacher of Torah", not a messiah or Christ figure - expert of Law - not son of God, or saviour of sin - Goal: want to find out what is going on in early communities (Historian's goal) - greatest diff. b/ween synoptics & John >- John portraying Jesus as son of God, or divine Logos ^ cosmic discussion >- synoptic - focusing on Jesus's acts, what he says, his audience Q - TWO SOURCE HYPOTHESIS Q * have clear understanding this - WILL BE TESTED ON FINAL* - Introduction - historicans convinced that Mark is earliest gospel - reasons? 1) material in Matthew & Luke and way material is presented in them infers that they both used Mark as a source => if sth used as a source, then must've existed prior to your work => Mark used by writers of Luke, Matthew 2) Other inference (this is pertaining to Q) - another doc. used by Matthew, Luke - b/c some stuff they both share w/ Mark, but also share other content w/ some hypothetical doc. (non-existent at this time) that is not in Mark => must exist, but no copy of it in present time - aka Q - "Quelle" - source (Quelle in German - Germans were scholars that devised this) - 2-Source Hypothesis: Matthew and Luke relied on 2 key sources: a) Mark b) Q - certain lines from both gospels stem from Mark, certain come from "Q" Scholar's investigation - reverse engineered contents of Q => infered based on contents of Matthew &* Luke what should be in Q (by going over what the 2 gospels had in common (line by line), BUT WAS NOT SEEN IN MARK) - easy way to confirm scholarship correct or not if it is ever found (b/c they literally went line after line and reconstructed Q based on commonalities & relationships they saw in Matthew & Luke's gospels. So if the Q is found, it is criterion that determines whether or not the reverse engineered copy devised by scholars is correct) DESCRIBING Q A Sayings Gospel - gospel made up almost entirely of Jesus's sayings w/ little narration - Jesus's words are afforded more significance than his death & ressurection - Jesus talks about morality, a'xn, ethics - Doesn't tell story (went here spoke to this ppl, went here and did this) => b/c has "little narration" in this type of gospel - Idea-focused gospel A rural Galilean Jewish document - written for & by some earliest Jewish followers of Jesus - written in poor Galilean village envirnmts - Reflects life & attitudes of early followers of Jesus at a time b4 Jesus's movement entered non-Jewish world - Jesus = teacher >- model for emulation >- not seen as "saviour" --------------------- - Q not found (in contemporary times), but if ever found, can be compared to scholarly literature today that tried to devise what its contents would be. Q = Sayings Gospel ** words that Jesus says (teaching, wisdom) that he gives to ppl are considered more significant than actual historical event of his death & ressurection - Earlier than Matthew & Luke Inference from last pt about Sayings Gospel "- Jesus's words are afforded more significance than his death & ressurection " - early community and their concerns - may not have been about death & resurrection ^ that pt of tradition took time to dvp (ie. came in subsequent centuries) - resurrection - not primary concern for prod. of gospels by the early communities >- not reason for communities gathering, talking about the tradition; didn't think it was lasting legacy that was to be talked about up to contemporary time => did not put emphasis on resurrection, Jesus's death & what will happen afterwards to him => Early tradition not in || to how tradition actually dvps (=son of God, crucified, arises from dead, his death serves as sacrifice for our sins) - rather early communities focused on Jesus as ethical person (had wise sayings to pass on) - the stuff about him having divinity, ressurection, death came later Q - not urban document (meaning not coming from cities, towns - mainstream society) - Ethics & concerns may pertain to poverty b/c written by POOR environments - At beginning of tradition, Jesus seen as teacher, model that we want to emulate (=> serves as role model) *=> not regarded as saviour in earlier traditions - model for emulation - prototype - some1 or sth that is one of the first and most typical examples of a group or situation, Longman => so in this context, prototype was Jesus to the early communities >- this person is a human being, and his a'xns are to be modelled by other human beings (ex. similar idea goes for prophet Muhammad (SAW) in Islam) => majority of early Christian communities seeing as Jesus as model to follow - their perspective on Jesus didn't have lasting power => He's teacher, but this idea got pretty much dominated by notion that he is "cosmic saviour" --------------[AFTER QUESTION BREAK]--------------- (20:49) HOLY BIBLE Old Testament - mostly has same contents as Hebrew Bible (H.B.) >- some shifting in order - Testament = teaching, *covenant - Old testament = OT (=old covenant made w/ Jews), so now new contract (= New Testament = NT) - *only refer to H.B. as OT when talking in context of Christianity - Old vs New differences >- not chronological distinction only, but clearly Christian tradition views their T to be new, but new & improved version of old >- old (OT) => inferior, b/c NT available, lacking (ex- Islam - Quran, similar representation) - Ideas of revelation connected b/ween 3 traditions >- new tradition comes later that with wisdom from its revelation, but this revelation/other aspects of tradition then must make connection w/ old revelations) - notion that new revelation is discussing about same tradition that certain individuals from past followed, but this newly brought tradition is not a mere repitition of old. => different (ex) Quran says that it is the last and final revelation, and there were revelations that came before. It says that it is to bring back what the Prophets used to follow (=Islam), but now new doctrines & beliefs also coming in >- ex. Muhammad is seal of Prophethood, follow his teachings, Quran is more superior than all other revelations from b4 - ex. Quran is last revelation, Muhammaed is seal of prophets >- not meaning last by chronologically last, but complete & superior => Every subseq. tradition believes that its scripture is more superior to that that came in past New Testament 2 key components - Gospels (Mark,Matthew,Luke,John About Epistles - 2nd key component of NT - Epistles (Paul's letters) >- not big emphasis on Jesus, but rather on Management (ie. managing the tradition and prospective converts, dealing w/ inquiries about faith, doctrine) >- Paul: managing Christian tradition by interacting w/ communities around Mediterrenian who asked him q's about doctrines & practices that they are doing --> (he responds, some practices that he doesn't like, he writes back and discourages them) => he is like "CEO", founder of emerging tradition * Epistles come after Gospels in book (written in scripture), but actually historically earlier Consensus (what majority of scholars take as "true") - basic pts of consensus that most scholars (historians) mostly agree on wrt historical context of Jesus - majority of info coming from Jesus from gospels => historians never fully guarantee credibility of sources - in contrast w/ faith-based individuals, who trust the credibility of sources, have faith in sources esp. if revelation) Consensus about Jesus - born on 4 BCE, Augustus = emperor of Rome at that time - grew up in Nazareth - no historical comp. of him born in Bethelum - had brother - James >- absolutely pivotal (v.impt than ath else) in Jerusalem church >- 50's 60's CE - In Jerusalem, he was likely the "boss" >- him and Paul would have debated, argued, contested - during Jesus's ministry (beginning) >- story of him being baptized by John (John the Baptist) >- apocalpytic preacher = John the Baptist - pivotal moment in story that Jesus sees him, finds him, & asks him to baptize him (be immersed in H2O) >- most scholars think that why John in particular? (giving John the authority - your the teacher, I am the student, baptize me) - humility - in Christian tradition, even son of God can be humble - not considering yourself or your ideas to be as important as other people's (Longman) - Jesus participates in John's ministry, and John & Jesus co-captains (leaders) of particular group of apocalpytic preachers - may have been in competition w/ each other Jesus's followers/audience - fisherman, farmers, women => "ordinary working ppl" * (classic explanation - not agreeable by all scholars) - Jesus's ministry about 1-3 yrs old - him walking around, preaching, delivering sermons => v.short, explosive career Arrest - consensus that he was arrested - on Rome's records, that individual arrested Last Supper - tells disciples what is going to happen & prepares (some kind of final meeting w/ instructions given) 30-33 - crucifixion - 30-33 CE - Josephus - cross that he is crucified (Roman form of execution is roman style - romans crucified him) - cross itself labelled Jesus of Nazareth, King of Jews - political social context - if some1's followers claiming that messiah (=king) arrived >- label of mockery [towards emperor], a || title already given to emperor One Notion excluded from "Consensus" - followers convinced that 3 days later, physically rises from dead, meets w/ disciples, ascends to heaven (not part of Consensus) ----------------------------[AFTER BREAK]-------------------- --------- EARLY FORMATION OF CHRISTIANITY - ISRAEL -> MEDIT -> ROMAN EMPIRE - ESTABLISHMENT OF BISHOPS - MAJOR BISHOPS: ROME, ANTIOCH (SYRIA); ALEXANDRIA (EGYPT) - CENTARLIZED AUTHORITY (BISHOP OF ROME) - early yrs of Christianity - first 400 yrs >- doc's & theories reduced to writing >- canonization of documents - 5th century - official version of tradition emerges - earliest communities - know little about, what we know about mostly comes from gospels - christianity in next stage - early communities that knew Jesus, or disciples - creation of offici
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