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Wednesday October 13.docx religion in class notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Lec 5 Wednesday October 13, 2010  Test question : provide Durkheim’s sociology theory, you must write down definition , or develop an argument. The bulk of the course will come from the lectures, 80% lecture materials  November 10 tutorial for short essay  ROM Tuesdays 5:30-6:30  Once we evolve to homosapians it’s a mistake to develop into human development, its rather we develop different cultures  Staged modeling-humanity goes through different stages of modeling  Magic is the most basic evolutionary stage giving rise to religion, religion then creates into science  Animism gave way to polytheism where spirits became represented with statues and painting, while monotheism is an evolutionary stance of polytheism  The critic of this approach- humanity is being transformed by technology and culture  Originis of anthropology- anthro a modern form developed in Europe and partly made possible by fact that 18 cent European countries became in control so because of that Europeans are the one that went to other cultures and went into studying those that were under the European control, anthro does not begin at this time  Earliest anthro were protestants or working in a protestant country  2 most famous of anthro of religion: Edward Tylore, and James Frazer-Tylers famous is primitive culture having a believing protestant upbringing while Frazer did the Golden Bough and was a puritan  Tylor-had many books written by missionaries providing them with fundamental knowledge because they themselves did not go to the scene to gather this knowledge which can be considered one of their criticism, since they were not in the field. Animism is basic form of religion which claims that the earliest human speculation was animistic meaning human beings did not distinguish themselves from the natural order thinking that the world was all spirit and so projection was that they too was a spirit. Tylor notes the word for should and spirit is the same, and animism is Latin word soul but having connotations to like wind, air, life. This indicates a primordial recognition meaning nature having soul or spirit but as time went on those beliefs will go complicated. Some of these spirits more powerful than human beings. He also tried to figure out how these beliefs came to human beings./….why natural assumption we humans make? He says death and dreaming being 2 different universal experiences. Taylor said that human beings will reflect on this-to see loved ones die, a basic human experience and as for dreaming they generate animistic belief/ he imagines the earliest philosopher – he would have made the connection between spirit and death…how do u know when a living thing is dead? The loss of breath. Breath seems to be essential to life, and once u cant death will follow. Breath is something you can’t garb so it creates a distinguish a thing between material things. So Tyler says the dualism that we have come from death. He sees the terms that are commonly uses like should are really meant by breath. The key to life is to be found in the spirit because the body cannot function without spirit/breath.  The experience of dreaming- Tylor puts forward that many dreams can be so intense that they seem so real than ordinary waking experiences. In dreams human beings live out a certain life as well, your dream life is much more powerful than your real life. We can do things like fly meaning we have more power. The tremendous horrors, power we have are so vivid that it creates in inference that there is more than one reality and that there is a realm and when you combine these together you have animism! The natural world being active having power must also have spirits and higher power, the commending force of things that happen in nature.  Tylor-animism is a magical practice, he argues that when you think of the natural world having soul and spirit you create practices to manipulate into these powers(magic)  He Tylore argues that in the evolutionary stages, development in the first stages are persistent in cultural survival, even though modern people are more rational than earlier people, this represents survival(persist) rather than a creation of later stage  FRAZER – he argues that ancient religion were fertility cult  Frazer tried to work out a classification of magic: his magical theory- they are fundamentally 2 kinds of magic: 1- sympathetic – feeling together of certain things: like produces like=law of similarity, law of similarity- the notion that things that have been in contact 2-law of cotangent, things that look alike have certain powers and they can be taken on because of an analogy between them. law of contingent- contact taken place  The best way to understand magical practices-magic rep primitive sciences, the world does not work in a way that you drink the gall of the bear to gain power – this is not science  Frazer- he argues that through using powers of sympathetic magic the pragmatic uses the spirit power to carry out their problem  He is making a distinguish of magic to religion , so in religion you are not manipulation the divine powers , you are appealing, whereas magic since you know law of similarity you use that to get the results that you w
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