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Lecture 04 / pg.1
Shiu, Henry October 6th, 2009
RLGA01, Lec. 02
Sikhism
- Developed in an area called Punjab
- A region with a history of increasing religious conflicts between Hindus and Muslims
- Since the 10th century CE, much of North India came under the rule of the Muslims
- The conquest was the most devastating to Buddhists
- The Muslims ruled over 500 hundred years
- The Mughal Empire controlled northern and central India from 1526 ± 1707
- Seen as the second era of Muslim rule
- In the first century, the Mughal rule was peaceful, giving rise to Indo ± Islamic culture in
architecture and fine arts
- E.g. The Taj Mahal
Religious Background:
- Both Hinduism and Islam existed through sometimes with conflicts
- Both religions share an appreciation for religious devotion and the attainment of mystical
states
- In Hinduism, there were the devotees of bhakt yoga
- ,Q,VODPWKHUHZDV³6XILVP´WKH,VODPLFP\VWLFDOWUDGLWLRQ
(some scholars maintain that Sufism derived much early inspiration from Hinduism)
- Both religions recognize the important role of a spiritual master
- 7KHUHZDVDOVRWKH1RUWK,QGLDQ³6DQWWUDGLWLRQ´
WKHWHUP³6DQW´PD\FDUU\WKHPHDQLQJRI³KRO\DVFHWLF´³WUXWK´RU³VDLQW´
- Three elements contributed to the rise of the Sant tradition:
1. Bhakti or devotional practice
2. Tantric yoga
3. Sufism
- There were many influential Sant poets, including Namdev, Ravidas, Kabir
- The first teacher: Nanak (1469 ± 1539)
- Composed more than 900 hymns, complied as the Adi Granth
- He said he had experienced God directly, and the experience revealed to him was that:
there is only one God, beyond all names and conceptions
- 5HIHUUHGWRWKHIXQGDPHQWDOGLYLQHUHDOLW\DVWKH³6DW*XU7UXH
7HDFKHURU³2PNDUD´'LYLQH2QH
- Insisted that God should be experienced, rather than talked about
- There is no Hindu and there is no Muslim. (note that the movement did
not bring into consideration Jainism and Buddhism)
- Nanak and his friend Mardana visited the holy sites throughout northern India
- Nanak preacheGVRXJKWGLVFLSOHV³6LNK´DQGVDQJGHYRWLRQDOVRQJVZKLOH0DUGDQD
played musical accompaniment
- Note: Nanak was raised in a Hindu family, while Mardana was a Muslim
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