RLGA02H3 Lecture Notes - Ibm Officevision, Mishnah, Israel
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AGENDA FOR JAN24
FINISH DISCUSSION OF HEBREW BIBLE STORIES
SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD
REVELATION AND INTERPRETATION
HISTORY, SACRED HISTORY, AND NARRATIVE
1. “COSMIC”: CREATION OF ORDER OUT OF CHAOS
2. ADAM AND EVE
GARDEN OF EDEN (TREE OF ?)
• LATER INTERPRETATION: (P.38)
(COMMONALITY OF FLOOD MYTH IN MESOPOTAMIA)- THEME OF TRADITION?
SACRED HISTORY (CONTINUED)
THE WORLD OF THE PATRIARCHS AND MATRIARCHS
• DEMYTHOLOGIZING NATURE
ISAAC HEBREW LINEAGE
JACOB (“ISRAEL”) ISRAELITES
SACRED HISTORY (CONTINUED)
MOSES AND THE LAW
EGYPT AS STARTING POINT OF EXODUS
2 KEY EXPERIENCES
1. BURNING BUSH
2. MT. SINAI
ARK OF THE COVENANT
PROMISED LAND (CANAAN)
STILL IN “SACRED HISTORY” MODE
SECOND TEMPLE ERA
MACCABEAN REVOLT (167 BCE)
• 1. SADDUCEES
• 2. PHARISEES
• 3. ZEALOTS
• 4. ESSENES
ROMANS RECLAIM AREA IN 63 BCE
66CE: REVOLT TEMPLE DESTRUCTION IN 70 CE
- Maccabean is a Hebrew nickname for Judah a person who headed the revolt. “Judah the
hammer. He began or helped to begin a dynasty of Jewish rulers in the region.
- “Hasmone Dynasty” is Jewish. They reclaim the region for a short period of time but the romans
take it back about 100 years later.
- “SECT” – are specific groups tied to social function, belief. A SECT can really be a result of a
variety of things.
- Sadducees are related to the priestly sect, or priestly class. The priests are in charge of the ritual.
- The Pharisees were legalists (like lawyers, the intellectuals, the scholars that kind of analyzed
the torah. To legislate policy based on the torah. More in charge of the doctrines and the ideas.
- Zealots – (Someone is zealous—meaning someone who goes after something with fervor, a lot
of energy, passion). Nowadays may refer to a person who is over the top, so like overzealous. So
like too enthusiastic. So they were religiously very enthusiastic. The groups had their own views
of how Judaism should be run, how the priests should be running the temple. So zealots pulled
themselves out of the society and said this is not good enough. They created their own kind of
purified form of the tradition. So politically they would be highly active and very mobile. They
contest politically are not happy with things.
- Essenes are more like the mystical hermits (somebody who chooses to live alone and to have
little or no social contact), they cut themselves off from society and actually inhabited in caves
outside of the main areas. Pretty sure that the Dead Sea scroll could have been text connected
to the group, the essenes. However we don’t know that for sure. The Dead Sea scrolls were
found in caves by the Dead Sea.
- Within Christian history (or Christian sacred narrative) the Pharisees are seen talked about as
being partly responsible for the persecution and arrest of Jesus. However from a historical
perspective the Romans killed Jesus, some of the Jews might have helped them to get busted
but the whole idea of blaming the Pharisees is part of an early Christian polemic against the
Jews. Polemic is an argumentative form of intellectual communication.
- The Romans here reclaimed the region in 63BCE. About another 100 years go by and there is
another revolt about 66CE. This is when the second temple is completely destroyed.
- So when the Romans reclaim the area again in 66CE. There are a lot of fluctuations of reward
and punishment (Land Exile Home). With Maccebean revolt, there is this small window of
reclaiming the temple, reclaiming Jerusalem and feeling like it’s their place again, and their
kingdom again. But the Romans come and take it all back. At this time, there is this sort of sub
culture, messianic expectation that develops in the Jewish tradition.
- Who is a messiah is the Jewish context? What is their role?
- Messengers Prophets. However need to make a distinction between prophets and
Prophets are more like revelations, so the messages from God.
Messiah has a bet more of a focused role in the Jewish context. A messiah is
some sort of political or spiritual ruler that is going to come.
*** Note that by the time of this first century CE there is no more kings. There
has been a kingly line for quite some time but it got broken.
Romans have reclaimed the place and are occupying the territory, this window
of power that the Jews had has now faded. There is no more this kingly line. So
the hopes and expectation are that maybe we can have some sort of kingly
figure return and help them out.
So messiah is sort of like a kingly/spiritual ruler. The messianic hope is that they
come to get rid of messianic justice. This messianic hope or expectation is tired
to the idea of Apocalypticism.