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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Lecture 4 Applying methods to violence and the media. Philips studies. Methods applied to violence and the media While the question of whether the media causes increased violence seems easy to answer, it is not! Science: -Conjectures -Testing -Refutations Science works by refuting weaker theories rather than proving a specific theory e.g. all doves are purple, you just need to find one dove that is not purple to refute the theory Can Science predict to the real world? Science and economics dont predict well to the real world. Only one person predicted the collapse of the Soviet Union (everyone else thought they were fine). Weather forecast is wrong many times. Predictions are more accurate under lab conditions. It is harder predicting about the real world. Methodology: way of assessing validity and confidence in our knowledge You start with a question: e.g. Does violence in the media causes increased violent behaviour 1. Review literature 2. Select a theoretical approach - Select method Social learning theory People imitate behaviour of models -use similar other -use successful models Hypothesis It specifies a relationship between two or more variables. It is a testable statement. e.g. Observed aggressive behavior on tv leads to increased violence in children This is more specific than our original question Research design Systematic plan to test hypotheses & eliminate alternative explanations - each design has strengths & weaknesses: hence triangulate designs Well look at 4 designs today: Correlational Natural experiment Laboratory experiment Survey Correlational design You need to show that as: Violence on TV increases kids violence increases as well, and that the two are related a- Measure Violence on TV: Longitudinal content analysis of TV Random sample of TV shows Systematic counts of aggression
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