Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Sociology (2,000)
SOCA01H3 (600)
Lecture

Enviornment part 2


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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-Typus
-Yellow Fever
-Dengue
-India: 1953-57, Infections halved from 10.8-5.3% of total population; deaths reduced to zero.
-Sri Lanka: 1946-61: Infections fell from 2.8 million to 110.
-Taiwan: 1945-69: 9 million infections to 9 infections
-Edmund Sweeney
-William Ruckelshaus.
-Pesticides/insecticides Environmentalists are upset about this. Pesticides/insecticides are used
for two things agriculture, and preventing disease. We are talking about preventing disease here,
i.e. DDT.
-DDT as a carcinogen (and generally pesticides as carcinogens).
Pesticides are used but lifespans keep increasing and cancer rates keep decreasing.
-Smoking leads to heart problems more than it leads to lung cancer.
-Paul Erlich predicted that by 1980, the average lifespan would fall to 42 years of age. This
prediction was made in 1968. Actually, the life expectancy of women has increased. Before the
20th century, most women who died, died in childbirth because there was no Cesarian section.
-There are some disturbing parallels between the environmental movement and genocide.
-Silent spring: When this book was published in 1962, there was no environmental movement in
the general sense. When published, the environmental movement was in its infancy. Rachel
Carson was seen as one of the founders of the environmental movement. She said in her book
that spring would eventually be silent and DDT would kill all birdlife. She said DDT was a
carcinogen for humans, and called it the elixir of death that would kill one in four people, all
without evidence.
-There was some evidence that DDT caused eggshells of birds of prey to get thinner, but only
when used agriculturally (to get rid of insects on fields). But there has been no evidence that
DDT was human carcinogen. It has been researched more than any other chemical and over 50
years, there is no evidence. As harmless as any chemical can be for humans.
-DDT is bad for insects, especially mosquitoes (cause malaria).
-10s of millions died, 100s of millions infected with malaria due to the ban on DDT.
-DDT also fights yellow fever (also caused by mosquitoes), typus, and dengue.
-DDT was discovered in the last decade of the 19th century. Dr. Paul Hermann Muller revived
DDT and was given the Nobel Prize eventually. DDT is the most effective disease preventing
chemical ever discovered, and its also harmless.
-By 1955, malaria was obliterated.
-Not sure what he said, this is what I heard: In the US, between 1 million and 6 million cases of
malaria were reported.
-In the 1960s, malaria was eradicated from Europe, especially S. Europe.
-In 1972, the EPA in the US banned DDT despite all the good things about it because the EPA
was under pressure from environmentalists to ban DDT.
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