SOCA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Meritocracy, Exogamy, Nuclear Family

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Published on 17 Jun 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA01H3
Sociology & Sexuality
-sexuality is guided by social scripts that tell us whom we should find sexually
attractive & how to behave sexually
-20th century sexual century b/c sex came out of the closet
-erotophobia religion that has a phobic highly negative in response to sexuality
-Freud identified the libido sex drive in humans located in the id
-Kense sex researcher studied habits of sexual behaviour
Body Image
-women tend to be judged on appearance more often than men
- those dissatisfied w/ their body image are less likely to desire & engage in sexual
activity
Transsexuals
-prepare to undergo sex surgery & hormone therapy
Transgenders
Transgenders defy male/female cultural roles
-sexual identity doesnt match the body
Gender Identity & Gender Role
-Gender identity is ones identification w/ or sense of belonging to, a particular sex
-Gender role refers to acting in accordance w/ widely shared expectations about how
members of ones gender are supposed to behave
Metrosexuals
-dressed in a fashionable way
Homosexuality
-not sure if its caused by nature or nurture
- found in our closest evolutionary relatives
- found in all cultures at all times in history
Compulsory heterosexuality sexual activities expressed with the opposite sex
Mating Rituals
-sexual position varies from one culture to another
Sexual Controversies
-sometimes sex is dominated by hostility, aggression, violence
- typically male on female violence
-sexual violence can be rape, verbal, physical abuse, harassment
Sexual Harassment
-quid pro quo sexual harassment involves the use of sexual threats or bribery in
the making of decisions affecting employment
-hostile envt sexual harassment involves sexual jokes, comments and touching
that interfere w/ work/create an unfriendly work setting
-23% - 51% of women have been sexually harassed in the workplace
-over 100,000 women a year are raped in America
-in Canada, 26,000 cases
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Male Sexual Assault on Women
-10% of all rape cases involve men raping other men most commonly in prisons
-acquaintance/date rape is the least reported
Pornography
-it is legal, however obscenity is not
-obscenity is sex associated w/ violence, children, beastiality, degradation &
humiliation
-$15 billion a year business in US & Canada
Prostitution
-worlds oldest profession
-not illegal in Canada but cannot make a nuisance of self publicly
-soliciting publicly on the streets is illegal
-linked to poverty, patriarchy
-preferred to be calledsex workers
-most prostitutes are women
- rated in hierarchy
-call girls are at the top of the list young, beautiful
-street walkers are at the bottom of the list harassed by police
-no choice w/ who to have sex with
- runaways
-a victimless crime
-COYOTE call off your old tired ethics
Teen Pregnancy
-40% of children are born out of wedlock
-creates huge underclass of women who live in poverty
- these children tend not to do well in school
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Stratification
Social stratification refers to persistent patterns of social inequality in society: how
wealth, power & prestige are socially distributed and transmitted from one generation to the
next-exists in all societies
Complexity & Inequality
-Some sociologists say that politics is primarily responsible for equality
-Or that social complexity is most significant
- Occupational complexity
- In hunter-gatherer societies, division of labour is men hunt & women gather they
share everything
- In Inuit culture, the old ppl walk out in the blizzard and dont come back b/c they feel
like theyre a burden to society
-The legitimacy argument occupations try to legitimize what they make, using
excuses such as skill, time, dangers
Mosca on the Inevitability of Inequality
-Mao tried to impose equality and the death toll was 40 million
-His bookthe ruling class
- Inequality is inevitable because societies cant exist w/o politics
-Politics form of decision making & coordination
-Societies are organized and politics does the organizing
- Inequality must exist
-Anarchism political ideas that is suspicious of power & authority
-Believe that inequality is the source of all social problems
- In favour of equality
-First you have political organization, then you have inequalities of power
-When power differences are inevitable, material & inequality is inevitable
-if you have more power, you use it to your advantage
-ppl say Mosca is too pessimistic, synic
-Michels (conflict & elite theorist)
-Iron law of oligarchy - it doesnt matter what any political leader promises you,
once they get into power, they end up being like everybody else b/c of the nature of
power it corrupts
- Inequalities of power encourage corruption
-Stratification process by which categories of ppl are ranked by socially
differentiated characteristics
Class Structure
-class is a group of ppl who have about the same access to economic resources
-class structure refers to a relatively stable & prominent hierarchy of classes
- the existence of classes has been questioned recently because some scholars believe
that material inequalities are decreasing
The big 3 of social stratification
-wealth, prestige & power
-wealth holdings in liquid & non-liquid asset
-prestige your social standing in society
-power if you can determine the fate of other ppl, then you have power
-usually all 3 go together, however there are a few exceptions (ex. John Gotti had
wealth & power but no prestige)
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Document Summary

Sociology & sexuality sexuality is guided by social scripts that tell us whom we should find sexually attractive & how to behave sexually. 20th century sexual century b/c sex came out of the closet erotophobia religion that has a phobic highly negative in response to sexuality. Freud identified the libido sex drive in humans located in the id. Kense sex researcher studied habits of sexual behaviour. Body image women tend to be judged on appearance more often than men those dissatisfied w/ their body image are less likely to desire & engage in sexual activity. Transsexuals prepare to undergo sex surgery & hormone therapy. Transgenders defy male/female cultural roles sexual identity doesn"t match the body. Gender identity is one"s identification w/ or sense of belonging to, a particular sex. Gender role refers to acting in accordance w/ widely shared expectations about how members of one"s gender are supposed to behave.