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Lecture 4

SOCA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Meritocracy, Exogamy, Nuclear Family

Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Sociology & Sexuality
-sexuality is guided by social scripts that tell us whom we should find sexually
attractive & how to behave sexually
-20th century sexual century b/c sex came out of the closet
-erotophobia religion that has a phobic highly negative in response to sexuality
-Freud identified the libido sex drive in humans located in the id
-Kense sex researcher studied habits of sexual behaviour
Body Image
-women tend to be judged on appearance more often than men
- those dissatisfied w/ their body image are less likely to desire & engage in sexual
-prepare to undergo sex surgery & hormone therapy
Transgenders defy male/female cultural roles
-sexual identity doesnt match the body
Gender Identity & Gender Role
-Gender identity is ones identification w/ or sense of belonging to, a particular sex
-Gender role refers to acting in accordance w/ widely shared expectations about how
members of ones gender are supposed to behave
-dressed in a fashionable way
-not sure if its caused by nature or nurture
- found in our closest evolutionary relatives
- found in all cultures at all times in history
Compulsory heterosexuality sexual activities expressed with the opposite sex
Mating Rituals
-sexual position varies from one culture to another
Sexual Controversies
-sometimes sex is dominated by hostility, aggression, violence
- typically male on female violence
-sexual violence can be rape, verbal, physical abuse, harassment
Sexual Harassment
-quid pro quo sexual harassment involves the use of sexual threats or bribery in
the making of decisions affecting employment
-hostile envt sexual harassment involves sexual jokes, comments and touching
that interfere w/ work/create an unfriendly work setting
-23% - 51% of women have been sexually harassed in the workplace
-over 100,000 women a year are raped in America
-in Canada, 26,000 cases

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Male Sexual Assault on Women
-10% of all rape cases involve men raping other men most commonly in prisons
-acquaintance/date rape is the least reported
-it is legal, however obscenity is not
-obscenity is sex associated w/ violence, children, beastiality, degradation &
-$15 billion a year business in US & Canada
-worlds oldest profession
-not illegal in Canada but cannot make a nuisance of self publicly
-soliciting publicly on the streets is illegal
-linked to poverty, patriarchy
-preferred to be calledsex workers
-most prostitutes are women
- rated in hierarchy
-call girls are at the top of the list young, beautiful
-street walkers are at the bottom of the list harassed by police
-no choice w/ who to have sex with
- runaways
-a victimless crime
-COYOTE call off your old tired ethics
Teen Pregnancy
-40% of children are born out of wedlock
-creates huge underclass of women who live in poverty
- these children tend not to do well in school

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Social stratification refers to persistent patterns of social inequality in society: how
wealth, power & prestige are socially distributed and transmitted from one generation to the
next-exists in all societies
Complexity & Inequality
-Some sociologists say that politics is primarily responsible for equality
-Or that social complexity is most significant
- Occupational complexity
- In hunter-gatherer societies, division of labour is men hunt & women gather they
share everything
- In Inuit culture, the old ppl walk out in the blizzard and dont come back b/c they feel
like theyre a burden to society
-The legitimacy argument occupations try to legitimize what they make, using
excuses such as skill, time, dangers
Mosca on the Inevitability of Inequality
-Mao tried to impose equality and the death toll was 40 million
-His bookthe ruling class
- Inequality is inevitable because societies cant exist w/o politics
-Politics form of decision making & coordination
-Societies are organized and politics does the organizing
- Inequality must exist
-Anarchism political ideas that is suspicious of power & authority
-Believe that inequality is the source of all social problems
- In favour of equality
-First you have political organization, then you have inequalities of power
-When power differences are inevitable, material & inequality is inevitable
-if you have more power, you use it to your advantage
-ppl say Mosca is too pessimistic, synic
-Michels (conflict & elite theorist)
-Iron law of oligarchy - it doesnt matter what any political leader promises you,
once they get into power, they end up being like everybody else b/c of the nature of
power it corrupts
- Inequalities of power encourage corruption
-Stratification process by which categories of ppl are ranked by socially
differentiated characteristics
Class Structure
-class is a group of ppl who have about the same access to economic resources
-class structure refers to a relatively stable & prominent hierarchy of classes
- the existence of classes has been questioned recently because some scholars believe
that material inequalities are decreasing
The big 3 of social stratification
-wealth, prestige & power
-wealth holdings in liquid & non-liquid asset
-prestige your social standing in society
-power if you can determine the fate of other ppl, then you have power
-usually all 3 go together, however there are a few exceptions (ex. John Gotti had
wealth & power but no prestige)
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