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Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ivanka Knezevic

SOCA01 – Intro to Sociology 1 October 25, 2012 Formal Sociology (Simmel, Tönnies)  Focus: forms of social relationships that underlie and are common to diverse areas of social structure (i.e. diverse purposes of social action)  Diad: social relationship between two nodes (individuals, groups, organisations)  It requires intense involvement from both partners. Most often based on equality  Triad: social relationship among three nodes  New elements of social relationship: alliances, mediation, rivalry, etc. Importance of power Social networks – definition  a set of ties between individuals (nodes), along which (social and material) resources are exchanged  types of ties: unidirectional, reciprocal, redundant, strong and weak  Granovetter: the “strength of weak ties” is in information flow  Personal social networks overlap: they are connected to each other (unlike groups, networks have no clear identity and boundaries)  Who is in your network?  “Sociological proper”: unit of analysis is not an individual, but a social relationship Social groups and categories – definition  Groups are sets of people that: 1. Engage in social interaction 2. Have a structure: statuses, roles (Tepperman: leadership) 3. Have common values and norms 4. Whose members are aware of their membership in a group (Tepperman: identify with the group and other members) 5. Have boundaries, and practice solidarity and exclusion  Which characteristics do demographic categories (unconnected sets of people sharing a characteristic) lack?  Categories become significant if their defining characteristic is socially significant for structural reasons (Knezevic) or it is socially constructed as significant (Tepperman) Types of Social Groups  Primary: 1. Small; face-to-face contact; members get to know each other well 2. Membership is subjectively important to members(strong emotional ties) 3. Long-lasting  Secondary: 1. Large; members may never meet, but
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