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Lecture 10

SOCA01 Lecture 10.docx

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Ivanka Knezevic

Gender and Sexuality Lecture 10, 22/11/2012 Four main ideas on gender (Siltanen and Doucet) 1. Gender is a vantage point of critique (feminism is activist, not just academic). 2. Gender is a social construction (not an essential, biologically based, unchangeable characteristic of humans). 3. Gender is realized in social roles and institutions (gender is both an identity and a structural constraint, which affects both women and men). 4. Gender is a relation of inequality (not just difference). - Knezevic: this reflects the development of North American feminist sociology and assumes high salience of gender/ impossibility of gender-neutral social arrangements. - Any gender ideology is a self-fulfilling prophecy. Gender is a social construction - Gender is a socially constructed identity that is thought to be appropriate to a biological sex. - Essentialism: view that male-female differences are universal and largely reflect biological differences. - Gender identities differ across time and societies, and they are NOT binary and polar opposites. - Gender stereotypes: oversimplified beliefs that men and women possess different personality traits resulting in different behavior. - Structuralist view of the instrumental personality of men and expressive personality of women. - Siltanen and Doucet: hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity contribute to gender inequality. Gender in education - Majority of undergraduate and M.A. students in Canada are women, a slight majority of Ph.D. students are men. - Gender-based selection of elective subjects in high school enables gender segregation of university programmes (architecture, agriculture, engineering, math, physics, and forestry). - More even gender structure of occupations in Denmark (and other European countries), where all high school subjects are mandatory. - Gender structure of engineering students in Canada is more uneven now than it was in the 1970s - Gender structure of licensed engineers is more even, due to immigration of women engineers from Eastern Europe and China Gender at work - Occupational segregation. - Gender income gap: in Canada, women earn 79% of the income of the equally qualified man working full time (minimal change since the 1990s), 91% in Belgium, 82% in the U.S. - Women with a professional or graduate degree aged under 30 in Canada: 96% Gender and Sexuality Lecture 10, 22/11/2012 - All women with a bachelor’s degree in Canada: 86% - Precarious work: 40% of Canadian employed women and 34% of the men (labour/non-contract/temporary jobs – not “good” jobs) - High variability of gender norms of standard employment (North America, UK, Japan; continental Europe, post-socialist countries, China). Gender in the family - As female labour force activity has increased, men have begun to share some unpaid domestic and care labour (particularly child care). - But the number of hours of unpaid work done by women has not decreased much. - Women active in the paid labour force typically work a “double day” (Hochschield “the second shift”). - The value of this unpaid labour (cca. 2/3 done by women, 1/3 by men) is estimated to be 1/3 of Canada’s GDP. Arlie Hochschild. 1997. The Time Bind (*About women?) - Workers often do not use offered policies that would increase family
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