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SOCIO LEC 11 - aug 7.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

Race & Ethnic - Toronto = Orange Toronto - Irish = minority, invisible minority (Irish = protestant/catholic?); ask for help in stores but no Irish needed - Minorities can physically look the same as majority but still be treated differently - Irish built much of Canada, Chinese = visible minority - Chinese experienced overt open discrimination over long periods of time – head tax certificate, had to pay head tax to come to Canada - There are problems trying to apply minority/majority definitions in Canada - Majority/dominant group – advantaged in terms of rights (political, civil) & resources (wealth) - But majority groups in Canada not given any extra rights because Constitution (Trudeau) prohibits inequality as it pertains to rights - Supreme court strikes down inequality based on rights - Except in 1 circumstance – 1 minority group that has special rights under Canadian law, Supreme court upholds special rights that other groups don’t have – Aboriginal people have rights to hunting, fishing, trapping – not usually limited by quotas on the amount they can hunt - Minority groups are supposed to have fewer rights than majority groups, but Aboriginals have more rights than majority groups st - Born abroad, coming fstm Africa, 1 generation then 65% of immigrants that come from Africa 1 gen have below average income but their children do exceptionally well because only 20% have below-average income – 80% of Africans have above average incomes (they are a visible minority) - Other Asians, Caribbean’s same deal – more children are doing well (slide 16); people are still called minority groups even though they have above- average incomes, minority groups are supposed to be disadvantaged relative to resources - Slide 17 – implications for multiculturalism - Slide 17 represents a continuum (examined when looking at classes), the highest level of intolerance is genocide, then expulsion (happens in times of war, native group uprooted & expelled), slavery, segregation (used to be in US south & south Africa), pluralism (multiculturalism) – when a society insists on pluralism, you find more intolerance in those societies than in those that stress assimilation - Canada has multicultural ideology (pluralism) - US has melting pot ideology (assimilation) - Assimilation rates in both countries is the same though - When you look at various societies historically, pluralism sometimes encourages assimilation/racial/ethnic conflict because groups stay distinct whereas assimilation, groups disappear - Pluralism has the least intolerance, assimilation produces more intolerance*? - Internal colonialism – involves one race/ethnic group subjugating others in the same country (slide 18) - One of the problems Aboriginal people in Canada face - many segregated on reserves, located in places w/ no economic growth, left with decision – should they abandon reserves & culture associated with it or should they stay? - When they abandon, they get more education, higher incomes, more longevity, live longer & healthier - Federal govt in Canada pays 1 nations $7 bill a year for support – no one knows how it is spent once it goes to local levels - Whistle-blowers within aboriginal community have in the last few years, writing anonymous letters to people, telling/stating how the money is spent - In Manitoba, the Peguis chief who makes these decisions gets $220 thousand a year, tax free = $383 thousand a year with taxes \ - Alberta – Enoch Cree nation, band counselors get $175 thousand grand a year tax free (give themselves) - Piaot – Saskatchewan, chief makes $200 thousand a year - Average income of band members a year - $15 000, across Canada - Problem = inequality, should be more responsible accounting when it comes to how govt money is spent - Slide 19 – expulsion, treatment of aboriginal people - Cultural genocide- intentional extermination implies there was deliberate policy to massacre people but was not the case with aboriginal people – instead the govt made attempts to assimilate forcibly NOT killing - Thomas Moore – slide 20, aboriginal lad went into Regina School, came out looking like an English boy = cultural genocide Davis & Moore – Whether inequality is functional or not, stratification functional (good for society?) - Stratification is universal, found everywhere so it must be functional - They speak about the functional necessity of inequality & stratification - These are very important questions that particular societies must address: o How you motivate people to get a specific place in occupational hierarchy? o How do you instill desire to fill certain positions in people? o What’s in that position to carry out responsibilities of the position once they are in it? - Say some positions are mor
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