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SOCA01H3 (591)
Lecture 2

week 2 - culture.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Culture What is it? - social forces – internal/external - all about perception, what we see is selective Social order & predictability - behaviour is not random in social groups - it’s patterned, predictable – ppl tend to conform - culture isn’t random - culture is the most powerful widespread social force that governs Values, beliefs & norms Values – things everybody in cultures share - most abstract, inclusive - political equality – system treats you equally - freedom of conscience – freedom to explore your own spirituality Norms – even more specific to groups - things that govern everyday conduct - more concrete than values, beliefs - what kind of behaviour isn’t allowed – proscribed - what kind of behaviour is allowed – prescribed The two faces of culture - allows us to be free but sometimes constrains it – paradox Status & role - allows us to live together peacefully - can force you to do things you don’t want to - all cultures have customs, beliefs, values, mores - status – socially defined position in the social order - common ones are kinships – define ppl to the relationships they have - kinship network – structural positions are related to each other & they define appropriate behaviour among & btwn those statuses - most important status – occupation – tells your prestige, income & education in society - prestige = social class - role – a set of behavioural expectations that are socially assigned to specific statuses - sanctions – forms of disapproval to bring ppl back in line Status & role set - we play multiple roles b/c we are assigned multiple statuses Roles - role strain – when you have one status - role conflict – when you hold multiple role statuses - roles are clashed Institutions - relatively permanent patterns of behaviour - clusters of specialized roles - groups,
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