Lec 5 soc01
Tech=techniqure or technology
Diff=difficult or difference
Adult socialization is secondary socialization. It is often discontinuous with childhood roles.
“Children shud be seen not heard”-the roles are discontinues which is why adult socialization is
There is anticipatory socialization-mostly these are anticipations are wrong. Flexible adults self- true
today who am I is identity? Two factors contribute: globalization & tech innovation. Most pple do have
Agents of socialization: siblings are primary. Secondary are schools; we call these “significant other” as
sometimes they are beneficial other times they are not. Teachers are expected to be role models.
Self prophecy- usually if you don’t believe that education will lead you to economic success then you
will be a drop out. You probably won’t be good at studies neither u will excel.
Religion is an agent for socialization for other. Being a mem of sports team teaches u how to loose and
how to handle a loss. Team makes you sacrifice and subordinates yourself to higher goals.
Peer groups- they could be pple from same age, status etc. they make a separate identity from parents.
They make their own social life e.g. dating. In traditional societies, peer groups are none.
Mass media- it can reach billions of pple, its reaches on global level, we need material culture e.g.
Videos, magazine, internet etc. TV viewing tops it. Whether watching violent movie make u violent? This
is not clear. Most of us can make diff b/w fantasy and reality. Mass media is a popular culture. It has vast
impact on pple today bcz of inc in tech.
Diff agents preach diff messages. In traditional societies, agents are same. U get one message from one
source and from other source you get diff. Thus there is discontinuity, this leads to role strain or role
Gender socialization-we need to consider nature nurture dynamics that lies behind it. Modern sociology
is inconsistent. It is best to look as a combination of two and probably nurture exerts more influence
than nature (biology)
Roles are just culture expectations. They take radical nurture uptake. They take earlier socialization in
the family which is critical. We see these in novels, pop music etc. symbolic interactionist said pple pick
and choose the model they want to emulate. If this wouldn’t have happened that we won’t have
feminist socialization. There is some nature role playing in both men and women. Consistent diff is found in verbal and math ability. Girls score more on verbal ability and men on math.
This is not confirmed in one study but many. Differences are not large but they crop up time after time
especially when large samples are used. Women outnumbered men->nothing to do with intelligence;
just diff abilities. We shud’nt apply such finding to individuals. There are many females that are better
than males. Some pple say nurture is the reason. Boys are encouraged to get into the math while girls r
discouraged. It is difficult to separate nature from nurture. Before u test these men and women, they
are already socialized. So it is impossible how much nature and nurture is involved, it remains a puzzle.
Hard to get publish the papers that come up with no diff in the study (tough to get some studies
published -> it is called publication biased).
Aggression-violent crime is a male specialty. There is nurture component involve but more nature.
Movies that guys watched which are violent shows more aggressive later in life (nurture). Boys are
known for their aggressive behavior. By nature they are more aggressive that is why they are attracted
to such movies. Little boys tend to play with little cars and girls don’t play with them. It gets pronounced
in adulthood. 90% all the violent crimes are committed by men. We know from sociobiologist
perspective , look into “testosterone” levels that is known to be associated with aggression. Also,
navigation is another reason- find ur way out, males & females use two diff tech- fact women have their
way of finding destination and men have their own. Women tend to rely on landmarks and men use
spatial ways. The higher the testosterone level, more they will navigate (hence clear nurture thing).
Evolution psychology is the psychological version of sociobiologist- they say during human evolution, it
was advantageous for Homo sapiens to use this tech for navigations. Imp bcz they were hunter and
gatherers. Hunting req special navigation – many miles travelling. Landmark tech for gathers (hence
women). No inference that one is superior to other. Women brought larger amount of food but men
brought most nutritious meat. This increases adaptation and survival. Female infant not apply.
Throughout it is