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Lecture 4


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Robert Brym

SOCA01 – October 4 OCTOBER 22 – 5-7 PM METHODS: VIOLENCE AND THE MEDIA What television shows cause the most violence?  TV news  Barney assaulted many SCIENCE involves  Conjectures (ideas, some sort of idea you wanna go after, idea can come anywhere)  Testing (takes it beyond common sense)  Refutations (you cannot prove things right, the theories that dominate are those that last through the test of time, you can DISPROVE THINGS, not prove) Example: “there are all white swans” you cannot find all white swans, however you can find a black swan or something else. You can refute a theory. Predict to real world? Example: We cannot predict the weather precisely Methodology  Ways of assessing the validity and confidence in our knowledge 1. Start with a question a. Looking at violence: Does violence in the media lead to violent behavior? 2. Once you formulate a question.. a. You review the literature. Select a theoretical approach (fairly developed or a primitive theory) and select a method (how you’re going to do it) 3. Hypothesis: MOST IMPORTANT a. Specifies a relationship between two or more variables (a testable statement) b. Example: observed aggressive behavior on television/video games leads to increased violence in children. Social Learning Theory  People imitate behavior of models o Use similar other o Use successful models o Example: we would be imitating the behavior we see on television and on video games o Example: Fraternity: In the movie, they are hazing the students, lied down on the road on the dark and didn’t die. Two idiots did that, and both were killed. Phillips’ Suicide Study 1. Method: content analysis: front page suicides in California 2. Daily motor vehicle fatalities: before and after publicized suicide 3. Basic finding: 3 day after; there is a burst of car deaths three days after 4. “Daily fluctuation in motor vehicle fatalities for a two week period before during and after publicized suicides” shows that 3 days after shows a peak 5. Detailed specification of effects: the # of publicity, the more number of deaths, a. The time to death went down b. Similar age and similar area c. Suicide VS murder suicide: After murder suicides, the number of people killing themselves/others went up d. This provides the factual evidence that we will copy people we see. 6. We want to replicate research. Phillips Boxing Study 1. Heavy
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