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Lecture 6

Lecture 6.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

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Lecture 6-October 10, 2012 Robinson Crusoe • As creator o stranded on an island o makes a society (him and Friday) o fish on friday (rule that they can make) • Products o fish becomes institutionalized and normative o generations after do not see it as a created ritual, but as a norm o mythologized (human origins hidden) • "Fish police" o constraining Societal Metaphor • get on a bus (you're born) Are there cultural universals? • incest (pretty much universally taboo) o not clear cut, some societies you can marry your 2nd cousin, others your 6th cousin • violence in the group o taboo, but can exist at certain levels • funerals (i.e. mourning) o the practice varies by culture • emerging ones? o human rights • Virtually all social practices are relative or social constructions (very few universals) o larceny, incest, infanticide, parricide (killing a parent), everythig has at some time been accounted Ethnocetrism • tendency to judge other cultures by standards of one's own culture Individuals must be socialized • feral children o not raised by humans o do not learn language, do not learn how to walk or have the proper facial expressions Socialization & Order (conformity, constraint) • learn basic values and norms of society • internalize these "in' the self o they motivate us (Freud's superego) o spring to action • obey or feel guilt o plus seek approval from other • vs. oversocialized conception of persons o part of us resistant and society doesn't go in us that much • How far does socialization go? o Stalin completely controls the media and education (attempt to make "new soviet person")  constant propoganda  bans religion  undermines ethnic groups  He was completely ineffectual (after 50 years, it fell)  Eastern Europe, when communism fell, different religious groups were fighting each other and different races • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis o language determines consciousness and hence our perceptions of reality o e.g. person's conceptions of a word ...winter: is a person's experience of snow limited by the number of words available to describe it? o Danny tribe: had 2 words for colour, dark and light  put colour on the screen and everytime they see a change, had to press a button  did the same as us (still able to differentiate colours, despite language) Oversocialized concepton of person (do we treat socialization as more important than it is?) • nevery fully socialized o id, I (irreducible) • socialization varies by group, place etc. • role conflict o even when you socialize, you cannot create set of rules that are absolute (we still make decisions) o e.g. profession:  teaching matters  publication is everything o e.g. work:  quality comes first  get tons out no matter what Solution #2 - sanctions and force • reward desirable behaviour o punish undersirable behaviour o every day occurrence • force: ultimate means of social control o stalin: take off uniforms before you are shot so can give it to the next guy, soliders that were taken by germans and came back to the USSR, they were killed by Stalin because they had been in the west (kill anyone who had any contact with the other side) • limits of sanctions (force) o red light problem  depends on surveillance (have to see it)  e.g. if in a small town, and there is a red light, you drive through it o people avoid formal sanctioins  most social control is informal (minor sanctions or rewards) Emotion and Social Order (*will be on the exam) • emotion o strong arousal o is named o is either positive or negative • emotion effects hypothesis (*will be on the exam) o strength of beliefs depend on the emotional energies invested in them o fundamental beliefs often "ungrounded"  -not able to explain or defend them  usually based on emotional energy you put into them rather than the reasoning of it How society creates emotions • emotion rules o stipulate what sho
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