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Strat lec nts

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mc Kinon

Stratification Sociology Cnt. Lecture #8: N ^} ]]Z}2L]]L^Z_ N In the past: o Argued that inequality is governed by politics (ex: royalty, church, peasants, merchants) o Low mobility (large families extended families) L[K}]Z}L Immobile: traditional societies & mobile: modern societies o Groups are defined legally o In traditional societies, inequalities are frozen in place o KL2} L[ol]L}L}Z2}[Z]}~}9K}}L N Today, we have classes (not caste systems) o Therefore, people can move up and down the social ladder N You can never equalize opportunities completely N But the best way is through EDUCATION o Of course there is a need for $ to obtain education but students can borrow money o Financial aids, OSAP, scholarships etc. o Govt. pays for about 60% of education through tax money N Sometimes people born into wealthy families have immediate advantages (ex of when opportunities are not equalized) N What causes inequality? o Politics N Why do some people make more money than others? o Complex division of labour Social differentiation o Occupation complexity N Modern societies are more highly differentiated (about 3,500 different occupations) o Historical relationships of occupational inequalities areestablished o Ex: Teachers see postal workers making more money and over time they become agitated and want a higher salary o Salary changes over time o Different occupations make diff salaries N Factors in economic success & explanations of income inequality: 1) Degree of natural talent: (talent, effort, schooling, responsibility) 2) Social capital: a. Important in getting a job b. Most people get jobs through connections and networking c. ,
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