Sociology Terms-Social Stratification
The act, process, or result of differentiating
Was an Italian political scientist, journalist and public servant. He is credited with developing the Theory
of Elitism and the doctrine of the Political class and is one of the three members constituting the Italian
School of Elitists together with Wilfred Pareto and Robert Michels.
The Ruling Class, 1896
In his most famous book The Ruling Class (1896), he argued that there are inevitably two classes of
people, the rulers and the ruled. The former is a highly stable, privileged stratum, which enjoys wealth,
power, and honour. In other words, he criticized Marxists who failed to explain the persistence of
dominance, and liberals who assumed that the transition to industrial society would lead to the demise
of rule by an élite separated from the masses.
He was an engineer, sociologist
Iron law of oligarchy
A political theory that states that all forms of organization, regardless of how democratic or autocratic[c]
they may be at the start, will eventually and inevitably develop into oligarchies.
Of, pertaining to, marked by, or favouring reaction, esp. extreme conservatism or rightism in politics;
opposing political or social change.
Assets in the form of cash (or easily convertible into cash)
Institute of Behavioural Research (IBR)
To conduct fundamental and applied multidisciplinary research to develop theories and models of
Aristocracy of labour
as a term with Marxist theoretical underpinnings, as a specific type of trade unionism, and/or as a
shorthand description by revolutionary industrial unions (such as the Industrial Workers of the World)
for the bureaucracy of craft-based business unionism.