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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

by OneClass165 , Fall 2009
4 Pages
91 Views
Fall 2009

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar
Lecture
6

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Thursday October 22, 2009 ± Lecture 6 Societies and the Individual
Today read: BRYM Chapter 4, 16 pages 465-470
Solutions to problem of order:
1. Socialization
2. Force
3. Exchange
4. Emotion
2 Statements
1. Society is the product of human activity (we are its creators)
2. Individuals are the product of the society.
As Creators
-Robinson Crusoe: Create the society the way they want since there were only two of them.
-*LOOLJDV,VODQG&RQWLQXHVRFLHW\WKHZD\LWZDVEHIRUHQRQHZFUHDWLRQV
-Creation: For example, fish on Friday. Could become givens to follow.
As Products
-Fish becomes institutionalized and normative.
-Mythologized: Human origins hidden.
-Fish police: Constraining. For example, smoke police, green police, etc.
Individuals As Products Of Society
-Societal metaphor: Society is like a bus. You get on for a ride and thrown out when dead. Not as
constrained as a train and has the ability to move around more freely.
Are There Cultural Universals?
-Able to construct the way we want, not real natural givens.
-For example, family structure, rules governing our behaviour.
-There are rules yes, but they are not very specific. For example, like murder, cannot kill but able
to kill for self-defense (violence in the group).
-Incest taboo: Varies from place to place (how closely is the relation between one-another?)
±Funerals (ie. Mourning): Differ around the world like in Ireland, woman dress in black for one
year.
-Emerging ones? Like human rights.
Virtually all social practices are relative
-Larceny, incest, infanticide, parricide, etc. everything has at some time been accounted a
virtuous action.
Blaise Pascal
-Ethnocentrism7HQGHQF\WRMXGJHRWKHUFXOWXUHVE\WKHVWDQGDUGVRIRQHVRZQFXOWXUH
Solution 1: Socialization
-Individuals must be socialized.
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Description
Thursday October 22, 2009 ± Lecture 6 Societies and the Individual Today read: BRYM Chapter 4, 16 pages 465-470 Solutions to problem of order: 1. Socialization 2. Force 3. Exchange 4. Emotion 2 Statements 1. Society is the product of human activity (we are its creators) 2. Individuals are the product of the society. As Creators -Robinson Crusoe: Create the society the way they want since there were only two of them. -*LOOLJDQ¶V,VODQG&RQWLQXHVRFLHW\WKHZD\LWZDVEHIRUHQRQHZFUHDWLRQV -Creation: For example, fish on Friday. Could become givens to follow. As Products -Fish becomes institutionalized and normative. -Mythologized: Human origins hidden. -Fish police: Constraining. For example, smoke police, green police, etc. Individuals As Products Of Society -Societal metaphor: Society is like a bus. You get on for a ride and thrown out when dead. Not as constrained as a train and has the ability to move around more freely. Are There Cultural Universals? -Able to construct the way we want, not real natural givens. -For example, family structure, rules governing our behaviour. -There are rules yes, but they are not very specific. For example, like murder, cannot kill but able to kill for self-defense (violence in the group). -Incest taboo: Varies from place to place (how closely is the relation between one-another?) ±Funerals (ie. Mourning): Differ around the world like in Ireland, woman dress in black for one year. -Emerging ones? Like human rights. Virtually all social practices are relative -Larceny, incest, infanticide, parricide, etc. everything has at some time been accounted a virtuous action. Blaise Pascal -Ethnocentrism7HQGHQF\WRMXGJHRWKHUFXOWXUHVE\WKHVWDQGDUGVRIRQH¶VRZQFXOWXUH Solution 1: Socialization -Individuals must be socialized. www.notesolution.com -Feral children: Children brought up without normal social organization. Hard to change then if they are found too late. Socialization and Order (Conformity and Constraint) -Through socialization, learn basic values and norms of society. -,QWHUQDOL]HWKHVH³LQ´WKHVHOIE\PRWLYDWLQJXVDQGVSULQJVWRDFWLRQ -Obey or feel guilt (plus seek approval of others). -Vs Over socialized conception of persons. But How Deep Does Socialization Go? -Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: State that language determines consciousness and hence our perception of reality. -)RUH[DPSOHZLQWHULVDSHUVRQ¶VH[SHULHQFHRIVQRZOLPLWHGE\WKHQXPEHURIZords available to describe it? Culture-Specific Syndromes -19th century women were said to always faint for the smallest things. Over socialized Conception of Persons 1 -Never fully socialized -³,G´FRQGXFWHGIURP)UHXG -³,´LUUHGXFLEOHQRWDEOHWREHPade smaller or more simpler) Over socialized Conception of Persons 2 -Socialization varies by group. Not a uniform process (Like Yale students vs. Community college) -Role conflict: Many roles taken on (parent, worker, husband, wife, friend, etc) and resolve conflicts among roles. However, socialization does not interpret it. -Example of role conflict: Professor. Teaching matters, publication is everything. Work: Quality comes first; get tons out no matter what. Solution 2: Sanctions/Force -Reward desirable behaviour. -Punish undesirable. -This is an everyday occurrence. -Force: Ultimate means of social control. Restrain cause of prudence. Use or Threat of Force in Canada? -Used in Canada during the October crisis. (War Measures Act in Quebec crisis) -4XHEHFUHIHUHQGXP«" Limits of Force/Sanctions 1 -³5HGOLJKW´SUREOHPGHSHQGVRQVXUYHLOODQFH Limits of Force/Sanctions 2 -People avoid formal sanctions, most social control is informal. Minor sanctions/rewards. www.notesolution.com Solution 3: Social Exchange -Balance inputs and outcomes -Higher education (input) should yield higher income (outcome). -Most significant input of Canadian government health care yielding compliance (to tax, law..) -Why WAS he still in power? (Beyond use of force and its risks) Provided key benefits in exchange for ruling; especially to military leaders and top troops. -Relies on tribal loyalties especially among most powerful backers. Solution 4: Emotions Emotion and Social Order -Emotions are strong arousals, is names, and is either + or -. -Emotions effect hypothesis: Strength of beliefs depend on the emotional energies invested in WKHP)XQGDPHQWDOEHOLHIVRIWHQ³JURXQGHG´1RWEHLQJDEOHWRGHIHQGRUH[SODLQWKHP How Society Creates Emotions 1 -Emotion Rules: stipulate what should feel and when. (Example, how to feel at weddings, funerals, exams, etc.) How Society Creates Emotions 2 -Emotion Work: -By the self: To repress the wrong emotions (emotion fallout). To bring out the right ones. -Society creates ceremoniHVFUHDWHGVR³GR´HPRWLRQV6KRZWULDOV Moral dramas. -Example, suicide rates tend to drop before Super Bowl because people become entangled into the game. (Pulls you out of yourself) During the Super Bowl week, highest rate of spouse abuse. -Albert Camus: Need a terrible spectacle to hold the people in check. Moral Drama -Public spectacles that pit good and evil. -Status degradation process that creates moral indignation (hatred). -The Pillory. Creation of Deviants (Behaviour is different from given norms) -Society needs deviants (Even in society of angels ±Durkheim). -How do angels have a sense of good when they have no had a sense of bad or evil? -Creates them through: Show trials, degradation ceremonies. -Show trials: bring people to trial and blame problems on them. Blame on victims rather than the state. Moral Dramas on North America -People do strong emotion work. -Can involve whole society or split it. -¶V: -Atomic Spies www.notesolution.com -Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. -Anger Hiss -Klaus Fuchs -¶V: -Abbie Hoffman. Hippies and Yippes (Chicago 7) -Hippies and Yippes rioted in Chicago, not allowed to have demonstrations but did anyways. The police rioted by taking away their badges and beat the demonstrators. -This split up the US. -Manson case. -¶V1L[RQ¶VFDVH -¶V: -Iran Contra: Oliver North. Provided arms to Iran. -Junk bonds: Michael Miliken. -¶V: -OJ Simpson: recall Rodney King -Canadian event that is one sided: Paul Bernardo. -Clarence Thomas Anita Hill. -¶V: -911. Easier to Create Negative Emotions than Positive -2UZHOO³%LJ%URWKHU´ -Dante: Inferno vs. Heaven. Moral Dramas of Heroism -Terry Fox -Astronauts (early ones) -Olympic athletes (?) may no longer be heroes. www.notesolution.comThursday October 22, 2009 Lecture 6 Societies and the Individual Today read: BRYM Chapter 4, 16 pages 465-470 Solutions to problem of order: 1. Socialization 2. Force 3. Exchange 4. Emotion 2 Statements 1. Society is the product of human activity (we are its creators) 2. Individuals are the product of the society. As Creators -Robinson Crusoe: Create the society the way they want since there were only two of them. -*LOOLJ,38,8O,3439L3:084.L099K0Z,L9Z,8-014703430Z.70,9L438 -Creation: For example, fish on Friday. Could become givens to follow. As Products -Fish becomes institutionalized and normative. -Mythologized: Human origins hidden. -Fish police: Constraining. For example, smoke police, green police, etc. Individuals As Products Of Society -Societal metaphor: Society is like a bus. You get on for a ride and thrown out when dead. Not as constrained as a train and has the ability to move around more freely. Are There Cultural Universals? -Able to construct the way we want, not real natural givens. -For example, family structure, rules governing our behaviour. -There are rules yes, but they are not very specific. For example, like murder, cannot kill but able to kill for self-defense (violence in the group). -Incest taboo: Varies from place to place (how closely is the relation between one-another?) Funerals (ie. Mourning): Differ around the world like in Ireland, woman dress in black for one year. -Emerging ones? Like human rights. Virtually all social practices are relative -Larceny, incest, infanticide, parricide, etc. everything has at some time been accounted a virtuous action. Blaise Pascal -Ethnocentrism%0303.94M:J049K07.:O9:708-9K089,3,784143084Z3.:O9:70 Solution 1: Socialization -Individuals must be socialized. www.notesolution.com
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