Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Sociology (2,000)
SOCA01H3 (600)

Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Lecture 4 Socialization
Aspects of Socialization
Primary Socialization
Rene Spitz Study
oStudy compared children being raised in an orphanage with children being
raised in a prison nursing home
oConsequences for children in orphanage with minimal human contact
Less demanding for attention
More susceptible to infections
Higher death rate
Slower development (maturing)
Possibility of impaired sexual functioning upon maturity (close contact
with other people can influence intimate relationships)
oPrimary socialization is crucial for social adjustment
oChildren who are praised and well complimented are better adjusted socially,
children who are put down have their self esteem destroyed
oShould not insulate children from failure however
oWhen does primary socialization end? Hard to determine exactly. Parental
Influence decreases once they enter school
oPower of suggestion can be very strong
Preindustrial times, children regarded as small adults
Children were expected to be capable of behaving like adults, when they didnt they
were punished harshly
Adolescence is a new idea to describe teenage years
Secondary socialization (aside from parents and siblings) from school
oDifferent ways of thinking are introduced

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oE.g. Academics believed that children can grow up in gender neutral
oImpossible due to kiddy culture- very sexist
oPart time job- muck job McDonalds
oFull time job
oGetting married
oBecoming a Parent
oGrowing old
Adult Socialization
oAdult socialization is necessary for four main reasons
Adult roles are oftern discontinuous
Some adult roles are largely invisible
Some adult roles are unpredictable
To help us learn a predictable new role, we typically engage in
anticipatory socialization, which involves taking on norms and
behaviours of the role to which we aspire
Adult change as we mature
Adult Socialization and the flexible self
oPeoples identities change faster, more often, and more completely than they
did just a couple of decades ago
oFactors are:
Growing ability to fashion new bodies
Agents of Socialization
oFamilies Major influence of primary socialization
oSchoolIncreasingly responsible for secondary socialization
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