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sociology lec 2

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Chapter 3 Culture Sociologists define cluture asthe sum of practices languages symbolsbeliefs valuesideologiesand material objects that people create to deal with reallife problems Culture enable people to adapt to and thrive in their environments High cultureculture consumed mainly by upper classes opera ballet etc Popular Culture is culture consumed by all classes Human culture survival kit has 3 tools Abstractionthe ability to create general ideas or ways of thinking Symbolsideas that carry meaning eg languages and mathematical signs Cooperation is the second toolit is the capacity to create a complex social life by normsestablishing generally accepted ways of doing things and valuesideas about what is right and wrongeg Family members cooperate to raise children and in the process they develop and apply norms and values about which childrearing practices are approrpriate and desirable Normsgenerally accepted ways of doing things Valuesideas about what is right and wrong Production is the third main tool it is the human capacity to make and use tools It improves our ability to take what we want from natureMaterial culture compromises the tools and techniques that enable people to get tasks accomplished tangible Nonmaterial culture is composed of symols norms and other intangible elements Three types of normsFolkways are the least important evoke least sever punishment walks on street wearing nothing on top half Mores customs are core norms that most people believe are essential for the survival of their group or their societyTaboos are among the strongest normswhen it is violated it causes revulsion in the community and punishment is sever incestrape murder
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