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Lecture 6

SOCA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Latent Learning, Observational Learning, Conditioned Taste Aversion


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Dont Know
Lecture
6

Page:
of 3
Krause, Corts, Dolderman, Smith, Psychological Science, Canadian Edition,
Chapter 6: Learning
1) An unconditioned stimulus is an event or a thing that elicits a response automatically
or reflexively.
a. True
b. False
Correct: An unconditioned stimulus (US) is a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response
without learning.
Answer: a
Page Reference: 227
2) Extinction is the result of forgetting.
a. True
b. False
Correct: The fact that responses can be spontaneously recovered suggests that extinction
does not result in "forgetting." Instead, extinction appears to be the result of new
learning.
Answer: b
Page Reference: 231
3) Shaleigh developed a conditioned taste aversion to spearmint gum by chewing it when
she had the stomach flu. Later she realized that the experience also gave her a taste
aversion to peppermint gum. This is an example of discrimination.
a. True
b. False
Correct: This is an example of generalization, not discrimination.
+
Answer: b
Page Reference: 231–232
4) All forms of classical conditioning require multiple pairings of stimuli.
a. True
b. False
Correct: Unlike most forms of classical conditioning, conditioned taste aversions can be
learned in a single CS-US pairing.
Answer: b
Page Reference: 235
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Canada Inc. Page 1 of 3
Krause, Corts, Dolderman, Smith, Psychological Science, Canadian Edition,
Chapter 6: Learning
5) Operant conditioning occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus
elicits the conditioned response.
a. True
b. False
Correct: This is a description of generalization. Conditioned stimuli and conditioned
responses are elements of classical conditioning, not operant conditioning.
Answer: b
Page Reference: 227–228, 231
6) A key difference between operant and classical conditioning is that in classical
conditioning a response is not required for a reward (or unconditioned stimulus) to be
presented.
a. True
b. False
Correct: Unlike in operant conditioning, where the reward or punishment is a
consequence of the organism's behaviour, in classical conditioning, the organism does
not control the presentation of stimuli.
Answer: a
Page Reference: 244
7) Having a gold star placed on one's spelling quiz would be a secondary reinforcer.
a. True
b. False
Correct: Secondary reinforcers consist of reinforcing stimuli that acquire their value
through learning.
Answer: a
Page Reference: 247–248
8) In order for latent learning to occur, there must be reinforcement.
a. True
b. False
Correct: Latent learning is learning that occurs without reinforcement, but is not
expressed by a response until the organism is reinforced for doing so.
Answer: b
Page Reference: 259
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Canada Inc. Page 2 of 3
Krause, Corts, Dolderman, Smith, Psychological Science, Canadian Edition,
Chapter 6: Learning
9) The process of observational learning would explain how 3-year-old Ryan knows how
to lather up his own face after watching his dad shave earlier that day.
a. True
b. False
Correct: Observational learning involves changes in behaviour and knowledge that result
from watching others. Ryan's behaviour is an example of imitation, one of the primary
mechanisms that allows observational learning to take place.
Answer: a
Page Reference: 260–263
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Canada Inc. Page 3 of 3