Decline of Traditional Neuclear family:
- Maintain socially approved relation. Wife without pay in the home. Decrease in
family. Decline in traditional family. Serial monogamy- lots of marriages.
- Divorce expensive for poor people.
- Canadian parent spent single, children from outside the marriage. Incidentally
2nd marriage has higher divorce rate.
- Traditional nuclear family is minority in Canada. No. of common law couples
without getting marrired/ just living together- shagging up- common law
becoming more acceptable.
Family--> sexual regulation, economical regulation.
- Least historically women perform domestic job.
1, Sexual regulation - every society maintains sexual activity, KINSHIP group.
Parents pass on their property to their children. Insets taboos.. Navajo
(Aboriginal people)- has matrilineal descent system ( trace ancestry through
mothers line). Cannot has sexual relation with the person from mother’s side.
There is also, Patrilineal.
Ancient Egypt allowed brother & sister’s marriage in ROAYL family to maintain
pure blood. inca (Mexico) - rich/ royal family allowed brother sister marriage.
Nature? Nurture? Not a good idea to have children with your relatives. DOWN
SYNDROME etc kind of thing show up because of recessive gene. Both carriers if they are related in shown in their children.
Out marriage is wildly accepted. Marriage out side forms alliances. It was
undertaken to form alliance and improve your social understanding.
Social regulation--> insets taboo. Family were biologically not necessary to
reproduce. Can be based on RACE, ETHNICITY, Religion. Legitimate birth
-Social placement gives children identity. Receiving from parent is emotional.
-Socialization- Primary socialization- socializing children by enrolling them into
school, so they can look after themselves. Being independent. Now days taking
long to stay out of home for completing education.
- sibling socialize, socialization comes in for free of charge. Family wants to
1. Material security & emotional- Harlow found that for primates, close physical
contact is necessary for sexual activity to reproduce. Family provides people with
particularism (family solidarity is based on accepting who you are.
- In society you are created in universal way. Outside world does not have
compassion. Relation ship are emotional = Affect. Family argument- upsetting.
FAMILY PARTICULARISM & IMPERSONALLY
SOCIETY UNIVERSALISM & IMPERSONALITY
Much more cold, distance. We need security provided by family. Family: protects you, financial assistance, emotional help- from middle class family we are more
likely to see it. 75% is middle class family.
- Hispanic/ Black/ White - Hispanic lives longest. When it comes to men living
singly dies 8 years on average then a married men.
- Family is a paradox.
- Family maintains socially approved relation. ( Nuclear family). Family is
changing, there is decrease in traditional family. ( This makes the earning male
“primary provider & ultimate authority” - Popenoe)
- In Canada, it started as traditional nuclear family but now these groups are in
- Functionalist / Sociologist think that there has been an increase in crimes
because the mothers are no longer staying at home, & they are occupied with
their job to look after the child.
- However, conflict & feminist theorist, disagree. The family is a social institution&
it should be assumed in a single form. 1st: its structures & diverse as people
accommodate new social pressure. 2nd: Family change is not deterioration
(worsen) instead these changes are improvements. For instance, there are
universal day care system.
- Sees family as a norm by Traditional nuclear family. Why can't social institution
provide the same function as the family.
- 1970 Japan- 20% Japanese women had not married by the age of 30. They
are liberal. Japan has fertility problem. lowest birth rate. It does not practice immigration like Canada does. Patriarchy is a reason why man Japanese women
minimize daily issue. More men trying to stay away from their marriage.
- COurt law has bias against husband.
- Divorce take children with you.
- By large conflict & feminist theory are not friendly- the social reproduction of
inequality. Sperm bank- artificial insemination& race the child singly. Women
have more power in today's world.
Engle - capitalism created patriarchy, modern feminism- says it existed in
society before the rise of capitalism. His Book: The origins of family. He said that
traditional nuclear family, the family concentrates welt & reproduce cast system.
- Functionalist- family is children's identity.
- Feminist- increases equality.
- Women and control & determine if they want to have baby. Family promotes
patriarchy. Disparity is seen as the patriarchy. Fianlly conflict theory sees as ,
women tend to marry other like themselves, To support racial & ethinic hierchy.
Japenese - Cnaadian are intermarrying. So, are the Jews.
- The sovient uninion 1970, they abolished marriage, Family reproduces race
& ethinicity, COnflict theory
Functionalist & the nuclear ideal:
- To survive- member must co-operate ECONOMICALLY. Raise their offspring in
an emotionally supportive env. So, they can become productive adults.
- Argue: Nuclear family is suited to meet these challenges. - Functionalist cite : Polygamy expands nuclear family. (more than one wife). It is
permitted in less industrialized countries of Africa & Asia. Extended family
(expands vertically by adding another generation- spouses parents). It was
common in the world.
- George Murdock: a functionalist, “Either as sole prevailing form of the family or
as the basic unit from which more complex familial forms are compounded,
exist as a distinct & strongly functional group in every known society”. Family is
based on marriage-socially approved, longterm, sexual & economic union
between a man and a woman.
- 5 main function of family & nuclear family:
1. Regulated sexual activity:
- No regulation would lead to people having sex whenever, wherever & with
whomever they please but marriage is a legitimate form of expressing intense
sexual activity- Murdock. 50 of 250 societies have a married man cannot have
affair with female relatives. (vice versa).
1. Economic cooperation:
-Man + woman = cooperating unit.
“Marriage exists only when the economic & sexual are united into 1 relationship,
& this combination only occurs in marriage. 1. Reproduction:
- Children are the future investment. Economic value increases as the child gets
older. It is a big economic incentive having children” -Murdock.
- Teaching children language, values, skills, religion etc. & to rear them. “Basic &
1. Emotional support:
Mainly mother (the primary “expressive”) emotion is responsible for ensuring the
family. Her role- to bear child, nurse. Man is a primary provider.
- Men- hunt, women - gather. However, women, produce 80% of food.
- Belief- More children (liability) - gives economic security
Canadian Middle Class in 1950s:
- Socialization & emotional function was the most important.
- David Riesman: “Quasi- Peruersion” women’