Reliability: DO the research again & if you obtain the same result then its reliable.
Validity: DOes your research variable measure what it claims to measure. Does your
research represent your world?
Survey: Most frequently used in Sociology. Bunch of questionnaire.
Sample: (part of group) selected from sampling frame (list of people in population of
interest) but its too costly & time consuming to get in touch with entire population.
Hopefully it will represent the entire population/ universe so, we can generalize.
- BEST WAY IS TO DO RANDOM SAMPLING. Cooking the books- fabricating datas.
By getting people who support your hypothesis.
- Random sampling is needed for generalizeability.
- Bias: oversample certain ethnic groups e.g. people whose surname begins with s.
- Select a specific group & take a sample. Stratified random sample.
- Are you measuring what you are trying to measure? If you are writing about something
but doing something else then it lacks validity.
- Nelson rating: TV rating. Survey Questions & Validity:
- Undercounting: Occurs in some categories of population because of an imperfect
sampling frame (e.g. under representativeness of sample when internet surveys are
- Non- response: The refusal to participate to participate.
- Response Bias: Inaccurate answers.
- Wording Effects: The way questions are phrased or ordered can influence & invalidate
- Washable diapers: Environmentalist disappears.
- Invalidity is when the question is not worded properly. Any question should not lead the
respondent. NO LEADING QUESTIONS- they are invalid.
- Multidimensional: Ask the question in variety of ways.
- Deindustrialization: wages are lower.
- International division of labour: Underdeveloped society, unskilled labour is used.
Labor intense industry: lots of labour.
- Developing society: semi- skilled labors.
- Developed country like Canada: Skilled labors. Globalization:
- Indicators of globalization through how many people arrived.
- Globalization is multidimensional- made up of several distinct. Globalization was in
motion back in 1960. European began to explore the world.
- MArshall McLuhan: Understanding global village. GLobe is like the old traditional
village. Mental horizon are restricted. THE WORLD WE HAVE LOST [book]. Peter
- MAterial culture is necessary before you get globalization. [Before the growth of
- We all are consumers. There are some cultural things nor yet recognized & unknown.
English has become closet thing.
- Transportation technology: Portuguese , French, Dutch, Spanish
- THen came AIR- what derives social change is Technology
- Lin Berg
- Amillia - Flew all over the word. Early 1930 & disappeared.
- Zeppelin technology- Balloons.
1. In motion in 60’s and a 150 years , began at the end of 15th century when Europeans
began to explore world 2. Global Village- understanding media: Marshall Mclean
3. Village of tradition- small and self-contained / compared/ to globe
4. Mental horizon are restricted
5. Indicators of globalization are how many people have arrived
6. Follow commodity trade – becoming interdependent
7. Material culture before you get globalization
8. English – international language
9. Portuguese French dutch Spanish british – engaged in ocean travel- some of chinese-
some say chinese saw western coast US before Columbus before 1942
10. MESO America- chinese flavor to it - find physical evidence-
1. Floating palaces- or floating – AIR transportation
- Quicker you get from point A to B is globalization.
- Carrying messages by pony.
- Telegraph uses wire that carries signal: MORSE code
- Movement of information is decoupled from the movement of people.
- Wireless comes from- telegraph comes from, then came the radio- which sends the
waves- requires no wire. It first used Morse code.
- Intercontinental connection.
- Voice carried by wire. Alexandre Graham Bell- phone
- Thomas Edison:
- Marconi- great inventor. Send radio signal from Cornell to Newfound land