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Mc Kinion

LECTURE2: Reliability: DO the research again & if you obtain the same result then its reliable. Validity: DOes your research variable measure what it claims to measure. Does your research represent your world? Survey: Most frequently used in Sociology. Bunch of questionnaire. Sample: (part of group) selected from sampling frame (list of people in population of interest) but its too costly & time consuming to get in touch with entire population. Hopefully it will represent the entire population/ universe so, we can generalize. - BEST WAY IS TO DO RANDOM SAMPLING. Cooking the books- fabricating datas. By getting people who support your hypothesis. - Random sampling is needed for generalizeability. - Bias: oversample certain ethnic groups e.g. people whose surname begins with s. - Select a specific group & take a sample. Stratified random sample. - Are you measuring what you are trying to measure? If you are writing about something but doing something else then it lacks validity. 1.Item validity: 2. Neutrality 1. Representativeness - Nelson rating: TV rating. Survey Questions & Validity: - Undercounting: Occurs in some categories of population because of an imperfect sampling frame (e.g. under representativeness of sample when internet surveys are used). - Non- response: The refusal to participate to participate. - Response Bias: Inaccurate answers. - Wording Effects: The way questions are phrased or ordered can influence & invalidate response. - Washable diapers: Environmentalist disappears. - Invalidity is when the question is not worded properly. Any question should not lead the respondent. NO LEADING QUESTIONS- they are invalid. - Multidimensional: Ask the question in variety of ways. - Deindustrialization: wages are lower. - International division of labour: Underdeveloped society, unskilled labour is used. Labor intense industry: lots of labour. - Developing society: semi- skilled labors. - Developed country like Canada: Skilled labors. Globalization: - Indicators of globalization through how many people arrived. - Globalization is multidimensional- made up of several distinct. Globalization was in motion back in 1960. European began to explore the world. - MArshall McLuhan: Understanding global village. GLobe is like the old traditional village. Mental horizon are restricted. THE WORLD WE HAVE LOST [book]. Peter Laslett - MAterial culture is necessary before you get globalization. [Before the growth of political institute]. - We all are consumers. There are some cultural things nor yet recognized & unknown. English has become closet thing. - Transportation technology: Portuguese , French, Dutch, Spanish - THen came AIR- what derives social change is Technology - Lin Berg - Amillia - Flew all over the word. Early 1930 & disappeared. - Zeppelin technology- Balloons. 1. In motion in 60’s and a 150 years , began at the end of 15th century when Europeans began to explore world 2. Global Village- understanding media: Marshall Mclean 3. Village of tradition- small and self-contained / compared/ to globe 4. Mental horizon are restricted 5. Indicators of globalization are how many people have arrived 6. Follow commodity trade – becoming interdependent 7. Material culture before you get globalization 8. English – international language 9. Portuguese French dutch Spanish british – engaged in ocean travel- some of chinese- some say chinese saw western coast US before Columbus before 1942 10. MESO America- chinese flavor to it - find physical evidence- 1. Floating palaces- or floating – AIR transportation - Quicker you get from point A to B is globalization. - Carrying messages by pony. - Telegraph uses wire that carries signal: MORSE code - Movement of information is decoupled from the movement of people. - Wireless comes from- telegraph comes from, then came the radio- which sends the waves- requires no wire. It first used Morse code. - Intercontinental connection. - Voice carried by wire. Alexandre Graham Bell- phone - Thomas Edison: - Marconi- great inventor. Send radio signal from Cornell to Newfound land
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